ppGpp plays an important role in the virulence of pathogenic bacteria . In Gram-negative bacteria, ppGpp is synthesized by two tynthases, the synthase I and the synthase II, which are encoded by the relA and spoT genes, respectively . These enzymes respond differently to environmental conditions. RelA is activated by the binding of uncharged tRNA to ribosomes upon amino acid starvation. SpoT is induced during the exponential growth phase
and responds to other changes in environmental conditions, specifically a lack of carbon sources or energy deprivation . ppGpp binds directly to the β and β’ subunits of RNA polymerase (RNAP), leading to destabilization of the RNAP-rRNA promoter open complex . Moreover, CHIR-99021 order the stringent response is increased by the availability of free RNAP, which gives rise to σ competition . ppGpp indirectly activates the expression of many stress-induced genes by its release from RNAP σ70-dependent promoters and by facilitating OICR-9429 concentration the use of alternativeσ factors. It has been shown that ppGpp is not only essential
for surviving periods of stress but also for the interaction of bacteria with their host . In case of S. Typhimurium, a mutant strain deficient in both relA and spoT (ΔrelAΔspoT) shows marked reductions in both bacterial invasion into host cells and proliferation in macrophages [12, 13]. Furthermore, the virulence of the ΔrelAΔspoT mutant is severely attenuated in mice [12, 13]. ppGpp controls
the expression of SPI-1 to -5 and Spv through their transcriptional regulators HilA, InvF, RtsA, SsrA, SlyA, and SpvR [12–14, 21]. These observations indicate that ppGpp may play a major role in Salmonella virulence via the altered expression of regulatory genes. Because ppGpp has been shown to affect the expression of many virulence genes in S. Typhimurium, it is likely that there are additional virulence genes among the ppGpp-regulated genes. In this study, we constructed an agarose 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) reference map of S. Typhimurium grown under amino acid starvation to identify ppGpp-regulated proteins from whole-cell preparations. By comparative proteomic analysis of ppGpp-regulated and Salmonella-specific proteins, we identified Cell Penetrating Peptide a novel virulence factor, STM3169, required for intracellular survival within macrophages. Results and Discussion Agarose 2-DE reference map of S. Typhimurium with induced stringent responses Because the correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels is nonpredictive, the direct measurement of protein expression is essential for the analysis of biological https://www.selleckchem.com/products/BIBF1120.html processes . 2-DE allows several hundred proteins to be displayed on a single gel, thus producing a direct and global view of the proteome at a given time point . Agarose 2-DE takes advantage of the process of protein separation over a broad range [24, 25].