Providing the option for on-line training would allow nurses and

Providing the option for on-line training would allow nurses and physicians to complete this on their own time, avoiding travel costs and the need for time off from work. NaTHNaC, while currently offering only training in YF, has added continuing education credits to its course from the Royal College of Nursing, and is developing on-line training capability as well as additional modules in TM. Higher qualifications such as postgraduate degrees or higher education diplomas and certificates in TM were not obtained by many health professionals working in YFVCs. Whether higher levels of

training and recognition of knowledge in TM translate to improved practice in the clinical setting remains to be determined. Practitioners are also looking for reliable, up-to-date information for country recommendations and for Selleck C59 wnt outbreaks

of disease occurring at their Dabrafenib travelers’ destinations. Several commercial and authoritative national, international, and independent sources provide this. Examples of independent, open access disease outbreak information sources are the CDC Travel Notices,27 the WHO Disease Outbreak News,28 HealthMap’s global health information website,29 the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases (ProMED),30 and the NaTHNaC Outbreak Surveillance Database.31 These are all web-based resources, emphasizing the need for those practicing TM to have access Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) to the internet for each consultation, something that most (85%) of the YFVCs in EWNI did. This is nearly double the number that reported using the internet for each consultation in the 2005 survey (44%) indicating the growth of point of care information technology. NaTHNaC has developed a combination of resources for TM practitioners that include a website with country-specific and outbreak information (rolled out in 2007), a national telephone advice line (since 2003) dedicated to health professionals, and a definitive TM text: the 2010 edition of Health Information for Overseas Travel. This book complements NaTHNaC’s website information and provides support for the TM consultation. Compared with 2005, in 2009 YFVCs most

frequently accessed the NaTHNaC website and called its national advice line compared with other resources. In addition, more authoritative print resources were used, eg, the Department of Health immunization book and the British National Formulary, compared with the use of the less comprehensive vaccine charts. As a measure of practice improvement, YFVCs were asked about adherence to standards. Since initiation of the NaTHNaC program, adherence to standards of immunization practice has improved and confidence levels of health professionals in YF vaccination have increased.32 There was improvement in proper vaccine storage, recording of fridge temperature records, and maintenance of patient vaccination records.

The use of prompts or “aides memoires” to optimize recall during

The use of prompts or “aides memoires” to optimize recall during completion of the post-travel questionnaire was considered an important addition by the panel. The prompts selected were (1) a calendar with the religious, national, and other local cultural holidays and (2) detailed maps of the destination countries. These retrieval cues were provided with the redrafted questionnaires (version 3) used in the cognitive interviews. Intense cognitive interviews were conducted on 10 returned travelers using the third version of

the questionnaires. Interview duration ranged from 21 to 40 minutes. U0126 supplier Cognitive interviews were particularly useful in revealing the process of memory, inference, and estimation used by respondents. These interviews provided insights into how questions were actually perceived by respondents and their confidence in their own responses. As identified in the cognitive task analysis, recall of dates related to events and locations during travel was a challenging task for travelers. Travelers were able to directly provide dates of departure from and arrival in Australia. However, generating responses about dates of travel in and out of countries

and time spent at each location was a more challenging task. The travelers who were unable to provide the dates initially were able to calculate days spent in given locations using different cues. Main destinations and locations were remembered, but the names PS-341 research buy of smaller or rural locations were less consistently recalled. Cognitive interviews also showed that people reported BCKDHA their itineraries but omitted countries through which they only passed in transit: this was detected when follow-up probe questions about the country in which travelers spent the shortest time revealed previously unreported transit locations. On further questioning, travelers reported that spending a few hours in an airport was not considered travel to a country. The final questionnaire was revised to emphasize the accuracy

of the itinerary reported, and a memory cue about transit locations was added to the item. Some respondents attributed a greater proportion of their total travel days to the main types of accommodation and activities that they recalled. Other travelers responded by systematically calculating the days spent at each accommodation or in each activity. Additional comprehensive lists of response options for accommodation and activities were then provided: these cues served as memory triggers for travelers. Travelers recalled illness episodes by remembering the setting (location, time of day, and company) they were in, a main travel activity, or a significant “landmark” event around the time of illness. Travelers used these cues to generate the date of illness.

This includes the utility of laboratory investigations and manage

This includes the utility of laboratory investigations and management strategies for patients with HIV who develop acute HBV infection, as well as those with chronic HBV/HIV infection with CD4 cell counts both above and below the threshold where ART is recommended for treatment of HIV alone. For the assessment and evaluation of evidence, priority questions were agreed and outcomes were ranked (critical, important and not important)

by members of the Writing Group. Three key questions were identified by the Writing Group. For deciding on when is the optimum AZD6244 ic50 time to commence ART in adults with chronic HBV/HIV infection, the following were ranked as critical outcomes: mortality, HBV disease progression (cirrhosis, HCC), response to ART (HIV viral load <50 copies/mL, CD4

cell count increase), and severe treatment-associated adverse events. For deciding on which is the anti-HBV treatment of choice when the CD4 count is >500 cells/μL, the following were regarded as critical outcomes: mortality, HIV disease progression, HBV disease progression (cirrhosis, HCC), HBV DNA decline on therapy, severe treatment-associated adverse events and patient acceptability. For deciding whether FTC or 3TC should be used in combination with tenofovir, the following were regarded as critical outcomes: HBV DNA decline on therapy, cost and adverse events. Treatments were compared where data were available and differences in outcomes assessed. Details of the search strategy and literature review are contained in Appendix 2. There are approximately 240 million individuals with HBsAg-positive hepatitis B (HBV) infection globally compared to an estimated 33.1 million with HIV infection [1]. The prevalence of HBV is related to patient characteristics, with the shared global endemicity and risks for transmission of both HIV and HBV resulting in a high prevalence of coinfection. An estimated 6.9% of adults with HIV infection in the UK have evidence of HBsAg positivity, Tacrolimus (FK506) with those of Black or other ethnicity and those with a history of injection drug use (IDU) having the highest prevalence. In some European cohorts the overall prevalence

is slightly higher. Incidence of new HBV infection in patients with HIV infection is estimated at 1.7 cases per 100 years of follow-up in the UK [2]. In the HIV non-infected, chronic HBV infection is classified into different stages, which are not necessarily sequential (see Box 6.1 and Table 6.1). These distinguish between the level of viral replication and the extent of immunopathology. Whilst the validity of such classifications is not well established in HBV/HIV infection, these distinctions are helpful in framing an understanding of coinfection. Type Description 1 Immune tolerant: HBsAg positive, HBeAg positive, high HBV DNA, normal ALT/AST, little or no necro-inflammation on liver biopsy and no or slow progression of fibrosis.

Similar to what was observed in our present study, differential e

Similar to what was observed in our present study, differential expression of TNF-α isoforms was demonstrated after stimulation with LPS or stimulation of the hemoparasite Trypanoplasma borreli, with a predominant rise in TNF-α2 (Zou et al., 2002; Bridle et al., 2006). Rainbow trout infected with the

protozoan parasites Tetracapsuloides brysalmonae PARP activation (the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease) and Neoparamoeba sp. (causative agent of amoebic gill disease) also displayed an increased expression of TNF-α2 relative to TNF-α1. In contrast, stimulation by IHN virus (causative agent of infectious hematopoietic necrosis) by the protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (‘white spot’ disease) or by the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus derjavini

(skin fluke) induced an increase in the expression of the TNF-α1 isoform at a higher magnitude than that of the TNF-α2 isoform. GSK126 concentration Thus, the differential expression of TNF-α isoforms is apparently dependent on the species of pathogen or stimulus, the tissue sampled and the species of fish studied (Purcell et al., 2004; Bridle et al., 2006), and the results obtained here probably reflect the interaction of S. iniae EPS with different cell types, including granulocytes and nongranulocytes present in the blood and organs. Indeed, the use of an in vivo system may help to preserve the integrity of cellular interactions, as well as the effect of lymphocyte-derived factors on proinflammatory cytokine production and,

similarly to other studies, ensues in elevated cytokine levels (O’Dwyer et al., 2006; Bozza et al., 2007). The role of EPS in S. iniae pathogenesis is poorly understood. There is evidence, however, that the interaction between the immune system and the EPS produced by this pathogen play an important role in both the development of the disease and protection against the pathogen (Eyngor et al., 2008). Not surprisingly, it is now revealed that EPS is also a key molecule in S. iniae pathogenesis; the failure to control the inflammatory cascade following Glycogen branching enzyme EPS administration is accompanied by a considerable increase in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines that are likely to be at the origin of clinical manifestations and poor outcome, both of which are typical of septic shock. Indeed, several inflammatory and infectious diseases are associated with the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the recruitment and activation of different leukocyte populations are a hallmark of acute inflammation (Saukkonen et al., 1990; Welbourn & Young, 1992). These cytokines are believed to mediate responses associated with clinical deterioration, multiorgan system failure and death from septic shock (Waage et al., 1991; Anderson et al., 1992; Bone et al., 1992; Beutler & Grau, 1993; Bone, 1993; Casey et al.

, 2002) Susceptibility to WR99210 was measured in terms of viabi

, 2002). Susceptibility to WR99210 was measured in terms of viability of cells by serial dilution colony counts on nutrient agar. The average viable cell number for the wild-type strain was scored as 100% growth (2.5 × 108 mL−1). Growth conditions were prepared for the culture to grow in MCGC medium containing 1% w/v glucose until the carbon source was exhausted, as determined by growth measurement. Cultures were inoculated at a density

of c. 5 × 106 cells mL−1. When the culture reached stationary growth phase, cells were sampled at appropriate intervals. Viability was determined by serial dilution colony counts on nutrient agar. The average viable cell number at the onset of stationary growth phase was scored as 100%, which corresponded to 2.8 × 109 mL−1 for wild type, click here 2.2 × 109 mL−1 for mutant and 2.9 × 109 mL−1 for complemented strain. The E. coliχ2913, thyA mutant

has been used previously to confirm complementation by the thyX gene of M. tuberculosis (Sampathkumar et al., 2005). As for E. coliχ2913 with the plasmid vector pUC18 alone, there was no evidence of the thyA mutant E. coli having grown on the minimal M9 agar plate (Fig. 2a Erastin cell line and d). In contrast, E. coli cells with the thyX or thyA of C. glutamicum grew on M9 in the absence of thymidylate supplementation (Fig. 2b and c). This confirmed that both the thyA and the thyX sequences encode functionally analogous enzymes in this heterologous system. The apparent molecular mass of the product was 31 kDa (Fig. 2e), which is similar to the purified products for both M. tuberculosis and Helicobacter pylori (Myllykallio et al., 2002; Sampathkumar et al., 2005). Sequence analysis of the 3′-end of dapB revealed a 5′-end of thyX that was only 52 nucleotides downstream of dapB (Pátek et al., 1997). The arrangement of the genes in the cluster suggests that they are cotranscribed. To determine if thyX located on an operon with dapB and dapA was transcribed in a single transcript, Amobarbital RT-PCR was performed using primers encompassing dapB, thyX and dapA.

Transcript species covering the internal regions between dapB and thyX (Fig. 3, lane 5, 850 bp), dapA and dapB (Fig. 3, lane 6, 1190 bp) as well as those between thyX and dapA (Fig. 3, lane 4, 500 bp), were detected. This result showed that the genes dapB–thyX–dapA constitute a single transcriptional unit. Using a two-step method and sucrose counter selection, we generated the strain C. glutamicum KH1 in which endogenous thyX has been abrogated by a second cross-over. Successful deletion of thyX was confirmed by PCR amplification of the thyX region with primers binding to dapA and dapB. The fragment of 1370 bp (Fig. 1b, lane 2) containing intact thyX was amplified from wild-type strain, and the fragment of 540 bp (Fig. 1b, lane 3) was identified in the mutant strain.

HOMA-IR was used as a

categorical variable in the univari

HOMA-IR was used as a

categorical variable in the univariable and multivariable analyses: the values were grouped into two classes on the basis of the median value in the population as a whole. The associations between a diagnosis of IGT or DM and potential predictive factors were quantified using odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated using logistic regression models. For the univariable analysis, the risk of IGT or DM was estimated considering all of the characteristics recorded in the study. The first multivariable analysis included the demographic and clinical risk factors known selleck inhibitor to be associated with a diagnosis of IGT or DM, or HIV infection: gender (female vs. male), age (per 1-year increment), previous AIDS-defining events (yes vs. no), previous use of stavudine (yes vs. no), CD4 count (per 50 cells/mL increment), HBV coinfection (present vs. absent), HDL cholesterol (per 5 mg/dL increment), triglycerides (per 50 mg/dL increment), waist circumference (per 1-cm increment), fasting plasma glucose (per 5 mg/dL increment), and HOMA-IR (≤2.82 vs. >2.82). In order to verify KU-57788 datasheet the findings of the first model, a second multivariable logistic regression model was used which included only variables with a P-value of <0.2 in the univariable analysis: CD4

cell count, HBV coinfection and HOMA-IR. The analyses were performed using sas software (version 9.1; SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). All of the significance tests were two-sided and a P-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. From the 7195 patients included in the San Raffaele Infectious MG-132 ic50 Diseases database (IDD-HSR), we selected a cohort of 291 regularly followed-up subjects with known HIV-1 infection since before 1988, who had an FPG level <100 mg/dL (<5.6 mmol/L) within the previous 6 months and no previous diagnosis of DM, and for whom HCV

and HBV serology data were available. Ninety-nine of these patients (34%) gave their consent to participate in the study, of whom 84 (85%) had confirmed FPG levels of <100 mg/dL (<5.6 mmol/L), underwent an OGTT, and were included in the analysis. There were no differences between the 99 patients who participated in the study and the 192 who did not in terms of the first and last available CD4 cell counts (P=0.742 and 0.450, respectively), the first and last available CD4 percentages (P=0.903 and 0.237), the first and last available HIV RNA measurements (P=0.932 and 0.774), or the number of years of antiretroviral exposure (P=0.228); the patients who did not participate were slightly younger [median (IQR) 45.0 years (43.0–47.2) vs. 46.3 years (43.9–49.3) for those who did participate; P=0.0007] and included more women [72 (37%) vs. 20 (20%), respectively; P=0.002]. There were no differences between the 84 patients who underwent OGTT and the 15 who did not in terms of gender (P=0.999), age (P=0.065), years of antiretroviral exposure (P=0.

aureus and JL-1 against Lactobacillus plantarum (Lu et al, 2003;

aureus and JL-1 against Lactobacillus plantarum (Lu et al., 2003; O’Flynn et al., 2004; O’Flaherty et al., 2005; Carey-Smith

et al., 2006; Jamalludeen et al., 2007). Seed & Dennis (2005) isolated five lytic phages from their natural habitats, namely KS1-S3, KS5 and KS6 that were specific to the B. cepacia complex (B. cepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia stabilis, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Burkholderia dolosa, Burkholderia ambifaria, Burkholderia anthina and Burkholderia pyrrocinia). Interestingly, KS5 and KS6 showed a broader host range by being able to lyse two clinically important representatives of the B. cepacia complex, B. multivorans and B. cenocepacia (Seed & Dennis,

2005). In 1956, 24 anti-Whitmore phages were isolated from stagnant water in Hanoi, Vietnam, and used as indicators NVP-BGJ398 concentration of the presence of selleck chemicals their bacterial hosts in nature. Thirty-six W. bacillus isolates (the former name of B. pseudomallei), 10 from Hanoi and 26 from Saigon, were tested against 24 phages showing differences in their susceptibility to the phages. The differences might have been due to antigenic differences according to the origin of bacterial strains (Leclerc & Sureau, 1956). Therefore, the work reported here is the first detailed study of the isolation and characterization of lytic phages of the Myoviridae family from soils that were able to lyse B. pseudomallei. There were two soil sites where both phages and B. pseudomallei coexisted (data not shown). One site is where ST79 was found. This phage was able to lyse B. pseudomallei isolated from the same site. The balance between phage and bacteria may allow them to be present at the same time. It may be assumed that the host of these phages in nature is B. pseudomallei. Phages ST2 and ST96 morphology are similar to T-even phage (e.g. B. cepacia Branched chain aminotransferase phages KS1, KS2, KS5 and KS6 and E. coli phage GJ9) with icosahedral heads and contractile tails (Seed & Dennis, 2005). The morphology

of ST7, ST70 and ST79 phages are similar to P2-like phage (e.g. Haemiphilus phage HP1, O149 enterotoxigenic E. coli phage GJ5 and GJ6) (Jamalludeen et al., 2007). From several studies of phages in the ocean, Myoviruses are typically lytic and are often found to have a broader host range than other tailed phages, which can sometimes infect different species of bacteria (Suttle, 2005). Interestingly, the six phages here were quite specific, able to lyse 41–78% of B. pseudomallei isolates obtained from both clinical and environmental samples, but also formed tiny plaques on the closely related species, B. mallei, strictly found in the horse. Only ST2 and ST96 phages could lyse B. thailandensis, a nonpathogenic but closely related bacterium found in soils of the same areas but not B. cepacia or Ralstonia solanacearum, which are plant pathogens. The resistance of various B.

The combined

use of both techniques represents a very eff

The combined

use of both techniques represents a very efficient tool to study the internal cellular organization. Gonzalez-Robles et al. (2001) used fast freeze-fixation, followed by freeze-substitution, to study Acanthamoeba trophozoite ultrastructure, resulting in well-preserved images of the cytoplasm, cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. However, no analysis of the cyst wall was performed. When processed using the QF-DE technique, the exo- and the endocyst layers were well preserved, and presented the same structural organization and thickness as that observed in TEM preparations (689 and 396 nm of average thickness, respectively) (Fig. 2). The intercyst space, however, was narrower learn more when compared with chemically fixed preparations (Fig. 2a), with an average thickness of 301 nm. This space was not empty, but filled with 11-nm-thick filaments connecting the endocyst with the exocyst (Fig. 2b and d), indicating

that possibly conventional TEM is not Palbociclib able to evidence the structures present in that space or that the chemical fixation and dehydration procedures partially disrupt the amoebic cyst structure. The surface of the encysted amoeba was irregular, probably because of the presence of secreted vesicles associated with the formation of the exo- and the endocyst (Fig. 2c and e). Endocysts observed by QF-DE presented a biphasic organization: i.e. compact, close to the amoeba cell surface and looser in the outer region (brackets in Fig. 3a). The endocyst was composed of 10-nm-thick fibrous structures, similar to those present in the intercyst space (Fig. 3b and c), and dispersed in the contact areas with the exocyst, making it difficult to define the boundaries of the interspace matrix. Molecules with globular (50 nm) and tail (20 nm) portions were frequently SPTLC1 observed in both the endocyst and the interspace matrix (inset in Fig. 3b). The endocyst structure resembles the cellulose structure in plant cell walls, visualized by the QF-DE (McCann et al., 1990). Knowing that the endocyst is primarily composed

of cellulose (Linder et al., 2002), it is plausible that amoebae secrete cellulose, through vesicles, as the ones observed in the periphery region of encysted amoeba (Figs 2c and 3c), and the cellulose disperses around the intercyst space, in a loosen configuration. We also observed that endocyst filaments connect with the exocyst (Figs 2 and 3), indicating that this amoebic cell wall may be composed of a mixture of cellulosic filaments that come from the endocyst and other proteins and polysaccharides. This observation can be supported by evidence showing that cellulose can be found at the exocyst (Chavez-Munguia et al., 2005). The exocyst ultrastructure could be described as irregular and compact by both routine TEM and QF-DE (Figs 1 and 4a). Interestingly, vesicles ranging from 67 to 167 nm were observed within the exocyst wall (Fig.

These developments could therefore further promote the utilizatio

These developments could therefore further promote the utilization of yeasts expressing cell-surface enzymes in the feed industry. Pichia pastoris cells displaying phytase on their cell surface were constructed. They exhibit

many useful properties, especially an ability to efficiently release inorganic phosphate from feed after preheating, and nutrients that are provided by yeast cells. This yeast strain thus has great potential as a feed supplement. The authors would like to thank Dr Vasimon Ruanglek (BIOTEC) and Dr Kusol Pootanakit (Mahidol University) for their useful advice. We are also grateful to Dr Akihiko Kondo (Kobe University, Japan) for providing plasmids containing α-agglutinin and to Dr Sumalee Kamchonwongpaisan (BIOTEC) for assistance with fluorescence detection. Dr Philip Staurosporine in vivo Shaw was extremely helpful for critical editing of the manuscript. This study was supported by the National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Thailand (grant no. BT-B-02-LG-BI-5102). “
“Potato scab is a serious plant disease caused by several Streptomyces sp., and effective control methods remain unavailable. Although antagonistic bacteria and

phages against potato scab pathogens have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, there is no information about fungi that are antagonistic to the pathogens. The aim of this study was to isolate fungal antagonists, characterize their phylogenetic positions, Selleck GSK-3 inhibitor determine their antagonistic activities against potato scab Carbachol pathogens, and highlight their potential use as control agents under lower pH conditions. Fifteen fungal stains isolated from potato field soils were found to have antagonistic activity against three well-known potato scab pathogens: Streptomyces scabiei, Streptomyces acidiscabiei, and Streptomyces turgidiscabiei. These 15 fungal strains were phylogenetically

classified into at least six orders and nine genera based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. These fungal isolates were related to members of the genera Penicillium, Eupenicillium, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Kionochaeta, Pseudogymnoascus, and Lecythophora. The antagonistic activities of most of the fungal isolates were highly strengthened under the lower pH conditions, suggesting the advantage of combining their use with a traditional method such as soil acidification. This is the first report to demonstrate that phylogenetically diverse fungi show antagonistic activity against major potato scab pathogens. These fungal strains could be used as potential agents to control potato scab disease.

The other possibility is that the BsuM enzyme remained in the cyt

The other possibility is that the BsuM enzyme remained in the cytoplasmic portion of the donor R+ M+ cell in the fusant and that, upon division of the fusants, various quantities of the enzyme were distributed Tanespimycin chemical structure to the progeny cells depending on where the cell division took place. It has been demonstrated that L-form colonies of B. subtilis arise among those of the bacillary form

after PEG-induced cell fusion (Hauser & Karamata, 1992), which indicates that cell division can occur while the fusant is still without the cell wall. As the L-form B. subtilis cell divides by an extrusion–resolution mechanism that is independent of FtsZ (Leaver et al., 2009), it is possible that a similar mechanism was involved in the division of the fused cells that were produced by random collision between the donor and the recipient protoplasts. This may result in incorporation of various parts and quantities of the cytoplasm of the R+ M+ cell into that of the

R− M− protoplast. Thus, upon cell fusion and subsequent cell division, different proportions of the donor and the recipient cell cytoplasms will constitute progeny cells. Cell death by restriction of the recipient chromosome will occur if a higher proportion of the cytoplasm from the R+ M+ donor cell occupies the progeny cell after division. There must be a critical level of the BsuM restriction enzyme under which the recipient DNA is saved from the restriction attack, and this may account for the reduced but significant efficiency of plasmid transfer from the R+ M+ donor to the R− M− recipient cell. We note in this ABT-263 nmr respect that the cotransfer efficiencies of pLS32neo and pHV33 from the R+ M+ to R− M− cells were 1/9 to 1/7 of the levels observed for the

fusion between the homologous pairs (see ‘Results’). As the chromosomal DNA in this fraction of the fused cells escaped the restriction attack, it is tempting Protein kinase N1 to speculate that the cytoplasmic space in the donor R+ M+ cell containing both plasmids but not enough quantities of the BsuM restriction enzyme to destroy the recipient chromosomal DNA corresponds to 1/9 to 1/7 of the space that brings about transfer of both plasmids in the case of homologous pairs. The heterospecific cell fusion between B. subtilis RM125 and either B. stearothermophilus or B. circulans was successful but the efficiencies were relatively low (see ‘Results’). The restriction system(s) in B. stearothermophilus CU21 or B. circulans BM used here has not been studied yet, but it is known that by a rough estimate, most bacteria carry one or more restriction systems (Wilson & Murray, 1991), which may have affected the fusion efficiency in this study. Another possible reason for the low efficiency is that the compositions of the membrane constituents in those bacteria are different from that of B. subtilis RM125, causing inefficient membrane fusion between the heterospecific bacteria.