Search terms intended for Medline were adapted as required for other databases. Terms used were “electroconvulsive therapy,”“electroshock,”“electroconvulsive,”“ECT,” combined with any of the following “use,”“utilization,”“practice,”“survey,”“statistical data,”“frequency,” limited to human studies and dating from 1990 to today. Relevant references, known to authors of this review published on governmental
internet sites or from newly published Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical text books (Swartz 2009) or reference lists in retrieved included papers, were also hand found. Table 1 Overview of included studies (N= 70) according to continent, country, region, city, or local Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hospital level. Inclusion and exclusion criteria Inclusion criteria: Data-based observational studies or surveys with reported ECT utilization, frequency, or selleckchem prevalence rates, by data collected from 1990 and above, for patients in psychiatric establishments (inpatients or outpatients) in well-defined continents, countries, regions, cities, or local hospitals. Also included were relevant studies published near the date limits for this study
(from Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1990), for geographical areas that had few pertinent publications. Studies in the following languages were included: English, Scandinavian (Norwegian, Swedish, Danish), and European (German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Turkish). In addition to authors’ Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical European language fluency, the online Google translation tool (http://translate.google.com/) was used when needed (e.g., for Portuguese and Turkish). Following exclusion criteria were included. Not data-based study
or survey, no or unclear report of ECT utilization, frequency, prevalence rate, practice, in unclearly defined populations. All report of utilization frequency, prevalence rates of ECT in selected samples or subgroups (e.g., young/adolescent, elderly) or special populations (such as pregnancy, disability, mental Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical retardation), and qualitative studies about clinician or physician subjective experience (views or opinions) Rebamipide on ECT. Screening of literature Two reviewers (KAL, BH) independently checked the titles, and where available, the abstracts of the studies identified by the electronic database searches. All references appearing to meet inclusion criteria, including those with insufficient details, were requested in full text. All reviewers (KAL, LJVS, BH) consisting of two pairs independently extracted data from the retrieved full-text articles according to a premade data extraction scheme. All discrepancies were resolved by consensus meeting/discussion, and the final decision was made by the first author (KAL).