Also, larger particle sizes in G2 and G4 powders can extend the light transmission distance, improving incident light harvest and increasing the photocurrent . Figure 4 IPCE spectra of pristine, doped with 5 wt.% G2, and 5 wt.% G4 TiO 2 electrodes. The photoelectrochemical performance factors such as the FF and overall η were calculated by the following equations: (1) (2) where J sc is the short-circuit current density (mA cm−2), V oc is the open-circuit voltage (V), P in is the incident light
power, and J max (mA cm−2) and V max (V) are the current density and voltage in the J-V curve at the point of maximum power output, respectively. Figure 5 shows J sc A-1210477 versus V oc characteristics of the DSSCs. The photoelectrochemical performance was measured by calculating η. The best conversion efficiency was 7.98% for the G4-doped device with a J sc of 17.8 mA cm−2, a V oc of 0.67 V, and an FF of 0.67. The pristine TiO2 and G2-doped XAV-939 chemical structure device efficiencies were 6.15% and 7.16%, respectively. The open-circuit voltage changed slightly with the insertion of green phosphor, from 0.67 to 0.68 V, while the fill factor changed with the insertion from 0.63 to 0.67, and the short-circuit
current changed from 14.3 to 17.8 mA cm−2. For pristine TiO2, η was 6.15%, which increased to 8.0% for 5 wt.% fluorescent powder added to TiO2 (Table 1). The Repotrectinib effect of different weight percentage ratios of fluorescent powder added to the TiO2 was also investigated, and 5 wt.% was the optimum ratio. The DSSC with only TiO2 had lower J sc and V oc because it has a lower proportion of excitons. When the fluorescent powder was added, the number of photons increased and hence increased the probability of photon and dye molecule interactions. Our results suggest that the insertion of green phosphor provides optimal electron
paths by reducing the surface and interface resistance, by changing the surface morphology of the electrode. Efficiency was increased tuclazepam by a factor of 2. Figure 5 J-V curves of dye-sensitized solar cell. It is based on pristine TiO2 electrode (a), TiO2 electrode doped with 5 wt.% G2, and TiO2 electrode doped with 5 wt.% G4. Table 1 Photovoltaic properties of pristine TiO 2 -based DSSC and those doped with G2 and G4 Samples V oc J sc FF η λ ex λ em (V) (mA cm−2) (%) (nm) (nm) Pristine TiO2 0.68 14.30 0.63 6.15 – - Doped with G2 0.68 16.50 0.64 7.16 254 517 Doped with G4 0.67 17.80 0.67 7.98 288 544 Photovoltaic properties include open-circuit voltage (V), short-circuit current density (mA cm−2), fill factor, power conversion efficiency (%), excitation wavelength (nm), and emission wavelength (nm). Conclusions In summary, we have successfully introduced a 5-wt.% ratio of green phosphors G4 or G2 into the TiO2 photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. The enhanced percentage of conversion efficiencies of devices doped with G4 or G2 were 30% and 16% with the open-circuit voltages of 0.67 and 0.