The extract was filtered, pooled and concentrated on Rotavapour (Buchi, USA) and dried in lyophilizer BI 2536 molecular weight (Laboconco, USA) under reduced pressure to obtain 10.6% of residue (CAEt). Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening
of CAEt gave a positive result for steroids, carbohydrates, triterpenoids, resins, flavanoids, and tannins. Diabetes was induced in rats by injecting a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg bw, i.p) in 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH was 4.5. Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured after one week of STZ injection to confirm for induced diabetes. The rats with blood glucose level above 140 mg/dl were considered to be diabetic and were used in the experiment. The animals were kept fasting overnight for dosing as per experimental design. After induction of diabetes, forty rats were divided into five groups equally9 as follows. Group I: (control group): rats of this group received only vehicle solution. Fasting blood samples were drawn on 1st day after single administration of CAEt and after 7 and 14 days by tail vein puncture under mild ether anesthesia in Eppendroff’s tubes containing 50 ml of anticoagulant (10% trisodium citrate solution) from the normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. All the animals were sacrificed by decapitation after recording the final body weight.
Blood was collected and serum was separated by centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 10 min for insulin assay by enzyme-linked BMN 673 research buy immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. After overnight fasting, on the day and the animals
were sacrificed, a zero-min blood sample was taken from tip of tail vein of all the rats: control (Group I), diabetic (Group II), CAEt (Group III), CAEt (Group IV) and tolbutamide (Group V). The rats of all groups were given glucose (2 g/kg) 30 min after dosing and blood samples were collected at 30th and 90th min for the measurement of glucose levels by single touch glucometer after the administration of glucose. Serum insulin was measured10 using ELISA kit from Boehringer Mannheim Diagnostic, Mannheim, Germany. The intra-assay variation was 4.9%. As the samples were run at a time there was no inter-assay variation. The insulin level in serum was expressed in μIU/ml. Lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney were estimated colorimetrically by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS)11 and hydroperoxides.12 Glutathione (GSH) was estimated using Beutler method,13 glutathione reductase (GSH-R) was estimated using the method of Horn.14 Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by using Kakkar’s15 method. Catalase (CAT) activity was measured by using the rate of decomposition of H2O2 by method of Aebi.16 All these estimations were made in both liver and kidney. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol, Triglyceride (TG) levels in serum were measured spectrophometrically by Allian Buccolo method.17 Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was calculated by Friedewald’s method.