In the third step, OD matrix estimation method is used to get the OD matrices in short-term period. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer
method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger ALK inhibitor list flow on high-speed railway. In particular, the short-term passenger flow forecasting in holiday is a special issue which combines the trends and conventional forecasting program; it is the work to be further studied. Acknowledgments This work was supported by Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 14JJ3030), Doctoral Scientific Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant no. 20120162120042), and Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants nos. 71401182 and 71471179). Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
Due to fierce market competition, product design and development process is faced with a huge challenge. In addition, in the initial stage of industrialization, competitiveness mainly lies with the prices of products. Only if the products were cheap and usable, would they be of competitive advantage in the market. This type of competition is named the cost-based competition. However, with the development of economy, the quality, time-to-market, and service turned up trumps, which led to
the competition being quality based as well as time based. As a result, to succeed in this type of competition, it is necessary for most of enterprises to introduce some new competitive products more quickly so as to occupy the global market share. It also means that new product development has become a key factor to keep the core competitiveness. Therefore, many
enterprises adopt concurrent engineering (CE) technology to support product design and development. Nevertheless, due to the existing of coupling in product design and development, it is difficult to manage this process. Particularly when take execution may produce new information flow or affect other interdependent tasks, more complex information flows among interdependent tasks will be generated. At the same time, due to the randomness of information Batimastat flow, incomplete information may often be used for design decision, which usually leads to design iteration . Design iteration generally causes increases of product cost and delays of development time as well, so how to identify and model couplings among tasks in product design and development has become an important issue for enterprises to settle. Many of the traditional project management techniques (e.g., Gantt chart, critical path method (CPM), and program evaluation and review (PERT)) only describe the sequential and parallel relationships, not the interdependent relationships in tasks. The design structure matrix (DSM) model presented by Steward  can express the interdependent relationships as well as the iterations induced by the relationships.