For this study, six American safflower cultivars were selected, n

For this study, six American safflower cultivars were selected, namely CW 99 OL, S-5344, S-3125, L75, L8 and Knowles93079. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the operating conditions, and desirability function was used as the methodology for the optimization. The independent variables were impact dehuller rotor speed (rpm), which was expressed in terms of the peripheral Pexidartinib inhibitor speed of the impeller (m/s), and grain moisture content (%, d.b.). For all the safflower cultivars, second order polynomial models were developed for both studied responses (DA and F). The results of the optimization technique revealed that the best dehulling performance could be obtained if the system is operated at a peripheral

speed of 40.5 m/s with a grain moisture content in the range 8.4-8.9% d.b. Under these conditions, the maximum values of DA would be obtained with a percentage of fines of less than 2% for selleck kinase inhibitor all the safflower cultivars, except 1.8. The processing of L8 under these operating conditions would also lead to optimal values

of DA with an industrially acceptable percentage of fines (from 1.8 to 3.1%. d.b.). The percentages of residual hull were also calculated, and they were higher than the recommended values for a proper bed porosity (10-12%) for oil extraction with solvent. These results suggest the need to evaluate other process variables in order to achieve an appropriate hull content for the oil extraction bed. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review This review examines the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in the identification of the causation of nonsyndromic genetic cardiomyopathies.

Recent findings NGS sequencing of the entire genetic coding sequence (the exome) has successfully FRAX597 nmr identified five novel genes and causative variants for cardiomyopathies without

previously known cause within the last 12 months. Continual rapidly decreasing costs of NGS will shortly allow cost-effective sequencing of the entire genomes of affected individuals and their relatives to include noncoding and regulatory variant discovery and epigenetic profiling. Despite this rapid technological progress with sequencing, analysis of these large data sets remains challenging, particularly for assigning causality to novel rare variants identified in DNA samples from patients with cardiomyopathy.

Summary NGS technologies are rapidly moving to identify novel rare variants in patients with cardiomyopathy, but assigning pathogenicity to these novel variants remains challenging.”
“BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcomas, particularly those of gynecologic origin, are very rare in adults. As a result, there is little literature on the optimal staging procedure and treatment modalities for this population.

CASE: A 43-year-old woman presented with a long-standing history of menorrhagia and was subsequently diagnosed with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix.

Conclusion: This

study demonstrates improved auditory, sp

Conclusion: This

study demonstrates improved auditory, speech language and cognitive performances in children implanted below 12 months of age compared to children implanted later. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“A protease producing marine bacterium, Bacillus click here halodurans CAS6 isolated from marine sediments, was found to produce higher enzyme by utilizing shrimp shell powder. Optimum culture conditions for protease production were 50 A degrees C, pH 9.0, 30 % NaCl and 1 % shrimp shell powder (SSP) and the protease purified with a specific activity of 509.84 U/mg. The enzyme retained 100 % of its original activity even at 70 A degrees C, pH 10.0 and 30 % NaCl for 1 h. The purified protease exhibited higher stability when treated with ionic, non-ionic (72-94 %) and commercial detergents (76-88

%), and organic solvents (88-126 %). Significant blood stain removal activity was found with the enzyme in washing experiments. The culture supernatant supplemented with 1 % SSP showed 93.67 +/- A 2.52 % scavenging activity and FT-IR analysis of the reaction mixture confirmed the presence of antioxidants such as cyclohexane and cyclic depsipeptide with aliphatic amino groups. These remarkable qualities found with this enzyme produced by Bacillus halodurans CAS6 could make this as an ideal candidate to develop the industrial process for bioconversion of marine wastes and antioxidant synthesis.”
“Condensation of 1-phenylsulfanylpropan-2-one with 1,3,6,8-tetraazatricyclo[,8)]dodecane gave 1-phenylsulfanyl-3,6-diazahomoadamantan-9-one which was reduced to 1-phenylsulfanyl-3,6-diazahomoadamantane, and the latter BI 10773 was subjected to desulfurization over Raney nickel to obtain previously unknown 3,6-diazahomoadamantane. Heating of 9-phenyl-3,6-diazahomoadamantan-9-ols with Raney nickel resulted in reduction of the hydroxy group with formation of 9-phenyl-3,6-diazahomoadamantanes.”
“Discogenic Pritelivir chemical structure pain is an important cause of low back pain (LBP). We have developed a

pulsed radiofrequency (P-RF) technique, using two electrodes placed bilaterally in the annulus, for applying radiofrequency current in the disc (bi-annular P-RF disc method). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the bi-annular P-RF disc method, using Diskit needles (Neurotherm, Middleton, MA, USA) in patients with discogenic LBP. The subjects were 15 patients with a mean age of 37.3 +/- A 8.63 years with chronic discogenic lower back pain that was not responsive to aggressive nonoperative care. Two Diskit II needles (15-cm length, 20G needles with a 20-mm active tip) were placed bilaterally in the annulus in the disc. Pulsed radiofrequency was applied for 12 min at a setting of 5 x 50 ms/s and 60 V. The pain intensity scores on a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) were measured pretreatment, and at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months post-treatment. The mean pain severity score (NRS) improved from 7.27 +/- A 0.

Below the superconducting transition temperature T(C), the nanobr

Below the superconducting transition temperature T(C), the nanobridge exhibits a series of sharp voltage steps as a function of current.

The multiple voltage steps are interpreted as a consequence of spatially localized phase slip centers MK2206 or hot-spot formation in the bridge. Just below the critical current, the voltages versus current curve shows a power-law behavior in the low temperature region, but Ohmic near the T(C). The thermally activated phase slip, quantum phase slip, and imhomogeneity in a one-dimensional superconducting system may contribute to the observed results.”
“Seizures in the newborn period are common and frequently indicate serious underlying brain injury. Although accumulating evidence suggests that they may impair brain development, there a re Currently no evidence-based guidelines for evaluation and management of neonatal Seizures. In this review, Selleckchem MX69 we will address some of the Current controversies facing child

neurologists and neonatologists, including how to define, monitor, and treat neonatal seizures.”
“The herbs danggui (Angelica gigas) and clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) and 4 natural antioxidants were combined in order to investigate whether or not they exhibited synergistic effects (SEs) on DPPH radical scavenging capacity. SEs were determined using the ratio between experimental scavenging capacity (ESC) and theoretical scavenging capacity (TSC). In all tested mixtures, SEs were observed, indicating ESC/TSC ratios greater than 1. The highest SE (p < 0.01) was observed for the solution combining alpha-tocopherol (20 mu g/mL) and quercetin APR-246 cell line (0.7 mu

g/mL) with danggui of 0.3 mg/mL and clove of 0.05 mg/mL. The addition of lipid-soluble antioxidants resulted in greater SEs than the addition of water-soluble antioxidants. The excellent SE appeared when quercetin was added to the herb mixture, while the addition of ascorbic acid did not result in SE. The results indicate that the combinations of compounds with different antiradical effects may more effectively protect oxidative stress than alone.”
“The influence of the annealing atmosphere and temperature on the crystalline phase and composition of thin ZrO2 layers grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon is analyzed. These physical parameters are correlated with the electrical performance of ZrO2 in metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures. For this study, 5.3 nm thick ZrO2 films were annealed at selected temperatures in the range of 400-900 degrees C in either nitrogen or ammonia atmospheres. As shown by grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction, the films start to crystallize at temperatures above 400 degrees C, resulting in a capacitance increase. An annealing in NH3 results in a higher capacitance increase than annealing in N-2. Angular-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry show no changes in the chemical composition of ZrO2 after annealing in N-2.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 214 chil

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 214 children less than five years of age from a community near Kumasi, Ghana. Blood samples and anthropometric measurements from these children were collected during physical examinations conducted BMS202 Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor in January 2007 by partners of the Barekuma Collaborative Community Development Programme.

Results: Findings from the logistic model predicting the odds of asymptomatic

malaria indicate that children who experienced mild, moderate or severe stunting were not more likely to have asymptomatic malaria than children who were not stunted. Children experiencing anaemia had an increased likelihood (OR = 4.15; 95% CI: 1.92, 8.98) of asymptomatic malaria. Similarly,

increased spleen size, which was measured selleck chemicals by ultrasound, was also associated with asymptomatic malaria (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.28). Fast breathing, sex of the child, and age of the child were not significantly associated with the asymptomatic malaria.

Conclusions: No significant association between chronic undernutrition and presence of asymptomatic malaria was found. Children who experience anaemia and children who have splenomegaly are more likely to present asymptomatic malaria. Programmes aimed at addressing malaria should continue to include nutritional components, especially components that address anaemia.”
“This study was to conduct the psychometric validation of the patient and parent versions of the Hunter Syndrome-Functional Outcomes for Clinical Understanding Scale (HS-FOCUS).

Data collected in a 53-week placebo-controlled multinational trial were used to evaluate item performance and reliability, validity, and ability to detect change of the six HS-FOCUS function domains.

HS-FOCUS was completed by 49 patients above 12 years old and 84 parents. Floor effects and

high average inter-item correlations suggested that some items were less informative or redundant. For both patients and parents, the internal consistency and test-retest reliability met the > 0.70 criteria Peptide 17 chemical structure for all domains except for the breathing, sleeping, and schooling/work in patients. Construct validity showed moderate to high correlations with CHAQ, CHQ, and HUI3 in activity-related concepts. Significant differences in domain scores were found in most domains among severity in disability measured by CHAQ DIS. Significant differences in HS-FOCUS change scores were found in patients whose CHAQ DIS score also changed.

Psychometric validation of the HS-FOCUS demonstrates it is a reliable, valid, and responsive instrument that can be applied in clinical trials or disease registries. Findings on the individual item performance suggest some items could be removed without compromising its validity.

The major risk factors for infection with quinolone-resistant E

The major risk factors for infection with quinolone-resistant E. coli were a history of FQ administration and the morbidity of cystitis rather than the menopausal status. It was considered that taking an appropriate history including the morbidity of cystitis and history of FQ administration, and the appropriate Ulixertinib supplier selection of an antibacterial agent, would be important when empirical therapy is required.”
“In this review, we describe the current state of development of immunochromatographic tests to detect toxic contaminants (e.g., mycotoxins, pesticides,

and veterinary drugs) in agricultural products and foodstuffs. We consider the place of these tests among other methods used for food quality/safety assurance, as well as the specific requirements for immunochromatographic analyses of compounds in different food matrices. We discuss strategies Erastin concentration to decrease the limit of detection and to conduct multi-parametric and quantitative analyses. We highlight some successfully commercialized analytical techniques and priorities for further

research. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal diseases. Collagen derivatives are candidates for disease-modifying OA drugs. This group of derivatives can be divided into undenatured collagen (UC), gelatine and collagen hydrolysate (CH). Collagen derivatives are marketed as having direct chondroprotective action and reducing complaints of OA. This review summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of symptomatic and chondroprotective treatment with collagen derivatives in patients with OA.

Methods: Eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until November 2011. Methodological quality was assessed using methods of the Cochrane Back Review Group.

Results: Eight studies were identified: six on CH, two on gelatine, and one on UC. The pooled mean difference based on three studies for pain reduction measured with the Western Ontario

and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index comparing CH with placebo was -0.49 (95% Cl -1.10-0.12). However, some studies report significant between-group differences in pain Idasanutlin supplier when measured with a visual analogical scale (VAS) or other instruments, or when CH is compared with glucosamine sulphate. For disability no significant between-group mean differences were found when comparing CH with placebo. Gelatine compared with placebo and with alternative therapies was superior for the outcome pain. UC compared with glucosamine + chondroitin showed no significant between-group differences for pain and disability. The most reported adverse events of collagen derivatives were mild to moderate gastro-intestinal complaints. The overall quality of evidence was moderate to very low.

“The marine strain Pseudomonas otitidis was isolated to hy

“The marine strain Pseudomonas otitidis was isolated to hydrolyze

the cooked sunflower oil (CSO) followed by the production of lipase. The optimum culture conditions for the maximum lipase production were determined using Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. The maximum lipase production, 1,980 U/ml was achieved at the optimum culture conditions. After purification, an 8.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,647 U/mg protein and molecular mass of 39 kDa was obtained. The purified lipase was stable at pH 5.0-9.0 and temperature 30-80 A degrees C. Ca2+ and Triton X-100 showed stimulatory effect on the lipase activity. The purified lipase was highly stable in the non-polar solvents. The functional groups of the lipase were determined by Fourier transform-infrared 17DMAG (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The purified lipase showed higher hydrolytic activity towards CSO over the other cooked oil wastes. About 92.3 % of the CSO hydrolysis was observed by the lipase at the optimum time 3 h, pH 7.5 and temperature 35 A degrees C. The hydrolysis of CSO obeyed pseudo first selleck inhibitor order rate kinetic model. The thermodynamic properties of the lipase hydrolysis were studied using the classical Van’t Hoff equation. The hydrolysis of CSO was confirmed by FT-IR studies.”

heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family members function as ATP-dependent molecular chaperones that assist in the folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and in the refolding of misfolded/aggregated Selleck AZD5153 proteins. These heat shock proteins comprise at least eight sets of molecular groups that share high homology, but differ from each other in their expression level and subcellular localization. Hsp72, which is also known as Hsp70 and Hsp70-1, is localized mainly in the cytoplasm but is also found in the nucleus. Stress-induced Hsp72 functions as a chaperone enabling the cells to cope with harmful

aggregations of denatured proteins during and following stress. The difference in the function of Hsp72 from that of other Hsp70 members, however, remains unclear. We report the establishment of a monoclonal antibody specific for Hsp72 using the rat medial iliac lymph node method. Immunoblot analysis revealed that our monoclonal antibody against Hsp72 specifically identified the 65 kDa protein. Immunocytochemical staining also revealed that Hsp72 localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and aggregated in the nucleus in response to heat stress. This MAb against Hsp72 will allow for further studies to elucidate the mechanism by which Hsp72 is localized in the cell in response to stress stimuli, and aid in the identification of specific interacting molecules.”
“Background: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) occurs at the right ventricular (RV) insertion point (RVIP) in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and has been shown to correlate with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived RV indices.

Endoscopy is a viable option when there are imperative indication

Endoscopy is a viable option when there are imperative indications for nephron sparing in the setting of high-grade disease.”
“BACKGROUND: Postpartum endometritis is usually

a polymicrobial infection caused by organisms that are part of the normal vaginal flora. A pathologically confirmed case of postpartum endometritis secondary to herpes and cytomegalovirus in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient is reported.

CASE: A 29-year-old, HIV-positive woman presented 6 days postpartum with abdominal pain and foul-smelling vaginal discharge. Pelvic ultrasonography revealed retained products of conception. Dilation and evacuation was performed, and antibiotics were started. Despite adequate antibiotics

and laparoscopic drainage of a pelvic collection, fevers ISRIB inhibitor and pain continued. A total abdominal hysterectomy, salpingectomy, GSK126 price and appendectomy were performed. Pathology reported herpes and cytomegalovirus infection of the uterus.

CONCLUSION: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus need to be considered as a potential cause of postpartum endometritis. When antibiotic therapy fails, an antiviral regimen should be considered. (Obstet Gynecol 2011; 117: 466-7) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181f73805″
“Crambe (Crambe abssynica Hoechst) is a winter crop, with high oil content and used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. This study was conducted in 2010 and 2011 at Umuarama County, State Parana, aiming to determine the effects of doses of potassium (0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha(-1)) on grain yield, oil yield, oil content and plant population. This study used four replications of randomized blocks. The increase of K2O levels resulted in higher grain and oil yield per hectare in the first year, but seed oil content and plant population were not influenced.

(C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

To discuss the basis of ‘missing heritability’, which has emerged as an enigma in the post-genome-wide association studies (GWAS) era.

Recent findings

Alleles identified through GWAS account for a relatively small fraction of heritability Vorasidenib molecular weight of the complex phenotypes. Accordingly, a significant part of heritability of the complex traits remains unaccounted for (‘missing heritability’). Recent findings offer several explanations, including overestimation of heritability of the complex traits and underestimation of the effects of alleles identified through GWAS. In addition, yet to be identified common as well as rare alleles might in part explain the ‘missing heritability’. Moreover, gene-gene (epistasis) and gene-environmental interactions might explain another fraction of heritability of complex traits. Moreover, transgenerational epigenetic changes, regulated in part by microRNAs, might also contribute to the ‘missing heritability’.


The new findings suggest a multifarious nature of the ‘missing heritability’.

With this in view, though many engineered processes for applying

With this in view, though many engineered processes for applying bioremediation have been developed but the inexpensive treatment of such sites has remained an elusive goal. Unlike organic contaminants, which

often can be metabolized inexpensively into harmless substances such as carbon dioxide and water, metals and their salts that typically inhibit rather than support biological processes. However, in recent years there has been a flurry of interest developed in the implementation of Salubrinal cost biological approaches for bioremediation of at least some forms of inorganic contamination and paved the way for some other promising technologies to emerge.”
“Background: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line malaria treatment throughout most of the malaria-endemic world. Data on ACT availability, price and market share are needed to provide a firm evidence base from which to assess the current situation concerning quality-assured ACT supply. This paper presents supply side data from ACTwatch outlet surveys in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia.


Between March 2009 and June 2010, nationally representative surveys of outlets providing anti-malarials to consumers were conducted. A census of all outlets with the potential to provide anti-malarials was conducted in clusters sampled randomly.

Results: 28,263 find more outlets were censused, 51,158 anti-malarials were audited, and 9,118 providers interviewed. The proportion of public health facilities with at least one first-line quality-assured ACT in stock ranged between 43% and 85%. Among private sector outlets stocking at least one anti-malarial, non-artemisinin therapies, such as chloroquine

and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, were widely available (> 95% of outlets) as compared to first-line quality-assured ACT (< 25%). In the public/not-for-profit sector, first-line quality-assured ACT was available for free in all countries except Benin and the DRC (US$1.29 [Inter Quartile Range (IQR): $1.29-$1.29] and $0.52[IQR: $0.00-$ 1.29] per adult equivalent dose respectively). In the private sector, first-line quality-assured ACT was 5-24 times more expensive than non-artemisinin therapies. The exception was Madagascar where, due to national social marketing of subsidized ACT, the price of first-line quality-assured ACT ($0.14 [IQR: $0.10, $0.57]) buy A-769662 was significantly lower than the most popular treatment (chloroquine, $0.36 [IQR: $0.36, $0.36]). Quality-assured ACT accounted for less than 25% of total anti-malarial volumes; private-sector quality-assured ACT volumes represented less than 6% of the total market share. Most anti-malarials were distributed through the private sector, but often comprised non-artemisinin therapies, and in the DRC and Nigeria, oral artemisinin monotherapies. Provider knowledge of the first-line treatment was significantly lower in the private sector than in the public/not-for-profit sector.

The absolute configuration

of compound 3 was established

The absolute configuration

of compound 3 was established by the modified Mosher’s method.”
“While Adriamycin price oxidized lipoprotein(a) (oxLp(a)) has been indicated to be involved in atherogenesis more than native lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), there is still a need to elucidate the associations among oxLp(a), hypertension, and atherosclerosis. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a recently developed index used to assess arterial stiffness that is independent of blood pressure components. The present study investigated the correlation between oxLp(a) and the CAVI among hypertensive subjects. Clinical data, including general atherosclerotic risk factors, in addition to Lp(a), oxLp(a), and the CAVI, were collected from 72 non-smoking, asymptomatic, and untreated female subjects (mean age: 64.3 years). Correlations between the CAVI and Lp(a) or oxLp(a) were examined in a hypertensive group (n = 34) and a non-hypertensive control group (n = 38). There was a significant and positive correlation between the CAVI and subject age in the control group, while there was a significant and positive correlation between the CAVI and subject age, systolic blood pressure, and oxLp(a) (r = 0.38, p < 0.05) in the hypertensive group. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified the oxLp(a) to be correlated independently,

significantly, and positively with the CAVI (beta = 0.30, p < 0.05) in the hypertensive group, while this correlation was not significant in the control group. These TPCA-1 purchase findings suggest that the oxidative modification of Lp(a) may be associated with arterial stiffness in hypertensive, but not non-hypertensive, female subjects.”
“Background: In the past decades, the theory of “”allergen avoidance” was considered the standard treatment for preventing the onset of allergic diseases. Recently, the concept of “”immune tolerance” has replaced this old theory, and induction of tolerance by exposure is actually Cediranib considered the appropriate

method for preventing atopic diseases and other immunomediated pathologies. On the other hand, it is obvious that for public health reasons, abandoning current medical and hygienic practices is not desirable; therefore, safe alternatives, such as probiotics, have been suggested for providing necessary microbial stimulation. Objective: The purpose of our review is to describe the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of probiotics, reporting literature data on their effect when used for the treatment of immunomediated diseases. Materials and methods: Articles reporting the evidence on the use of probiotics in immunomediated diseases, such as atopy, cow’s milk allergy and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and in inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), with or without statistical meta-analysis, were selected in three different search engines: (1) MEDLINE via PubMed interface, (2) Scopus and (3) Google Scholar for all articles published from inception to July 2013.

“Enzymatically derived NO and extracellular ATP are receiv

“Enzymatically derived NO and extracellular ATP are receiving greater attention due to their role as messengers in the CNS during different physiological and pathological processes. Ionotropic (P2XR) and metabotropic (P2YR) purinergic receptors mediate ATP effects

and are present throughout the body. Particularly P2XR are crucial for brain plasticity mechanisms, and are involved in the pathogenesis of different CNS illnesses. NO does not have a specific receptor and its actions are directly dependent on the production on demand by different nitric oxide synthase isoforms. NO synthesizing enzymes are present virtually in all tissues, and NO influences multifarious physiological and pathological functions. Interestingly, various are the tissue and organs modulated by both ATP and NO, such as the immune, brain and vascular systems. Moreover, direct interactions Dinaciclib order between purinergic and nitrergic mechanisms outside the CNS are well documented, with several studies also indicating

that ATP and NO do participate to the same CNS functions. In the past few years, further experimental evidence check details supported the physiological and pathological relevance of ATP and NO direct interactions in the CNS. The aim of the present review is to provide an account of the available information on the interplay between purinergic and nitrergic systems, focussing on the CNS. The already established relevance of ATP and NO in different pathological processes would predict that the knowledge

of ATP/NO cross-talk mechanisms would support pharmacological approaches toward the development of novel ATP/NO combined pharmacological agents. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We constructed vaccine vectors based on live recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and a Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon (SFVG) Sitaxentan that propagates through expression of the VSV glycoprotein (G). These vectors expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag and Env proteins were used to vaccinate rhesus macaques with a new heterologous prime-boost regimen designed to optimize induction of antibody. Six vaccinated animals and six controls were then given a high-dose mucosal challenge with the diverse SIVsmE660 quasispecies. All control animals became infected and had peak viral RNA loads of 10(6) to 10(8) copies/ml. In contrast, four of the vaccinees showed significant (P = 0.03) apparent sterilizing immunity and no detectable viral loads. Subsequent CD8(+) T cell depletion confirmed the absence of SIV infection in these animals. The two other vaccinees had peak viral loads of 7 x 10(5) and 8 x 10(3) copies/ml, levels below those of all of the controls, and showed undetectable virus loads by day 42 postchallenge. The vaccine regimen induced high-titer prechallenge serum neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to some cloned SIVsmE660 Env proteins, but antibodies able to neutralize the challenge virus swarm were not detected.