3% of O. ostertagi peptides with the most prevalent domain being NAD binding domain. In the free living stages, globin, zinc finger domains, and chromo domains were among the most prevalent. In the parasitic stages, metridin like ShK toxin, CAP domain, and C type lectins were among the most prevalent motifs. Clustering based on the number of IPR domains found in up regulated peptides revealed that consecutive stages tend mainly to cluster together with the exception Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of peptides from the egg. In both species, the domains found in these peptides tend to be linked to the adult stage, which is likely due to the presence of fertilized eggs in the adults. C. elegans had 8,896 proteins with RNAi phenotypes in the stages analogous to free living C. oncophora and O. ostertagi, and 8,205 proteins in the parasitic stages.
C. oncophora had 29 polypeptides from the free living stages and 68 from the parasitic stages with homologs to the C. elegans genes with available RNAi phenotypes, whereas O. ostertagi shared 53 homologous polypeptides from free living stages and 120 polypeptides from the parasitic stages, with C. elegans genes of known RNAi phenotype. For most RNAi phenotypes inferred, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries there were no significant differences between the numbers of polypeptides in the two species and the numbers of proteins in C. elegans that exhibited those phenotypes. C. oncophora had significantly more peptides with predicted RNAi growth phenotypes in the parasitic stages when compared to C. elegans. In contrast, O. ostertagi exhibited a significantly greater number of peptides with larval lethal phenotypes in the parasitic stages relative to C.
elegans. Comparison of the up regulated transcripts to the KEGG pathways revealed an increase in the number of transcripts involved in metabolism of cofactors and vitamins in Carfilzomib the parasitic stages of C. oncophora. In the free living stages of O. ostertagi, there were signifi cantly more transcripts involved in energy me tabolism when compared to the parasitic stages. Discussion The gastrointestinal parasites studied here exhibit Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries nu merous biological similarities. They begin their lives as eggs that are passed in the feces from the host. They re main as free living organisms up to and including the L3sh at which time they are ingested by the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries host, ex sheath and then continue their development as parasitic organisms within the host.
Examination of transcripts in both species revealed that 68. 8% in C. oncophora and 73. 0% in O. ostertagi have sequence homologues in the other species examined in this study and that 60% of strongylid genes have homologs in C. elegans. While we have identified few peptides that share homology only to non Strongylida species, mainly Ascaris. suum and Brugia malayi, these are likely homologous peptides not yet identified in other Stongylida species because of the incomplete nature of their genome sequences.