Furthermore, evidences suggest that the expression of PIAS3 can a

Furthermore, evidences suggest that the expression of PIAS3 can affect the growth of cancer cells by inhibiting the JAK/STAT and PI3-K/Akt signaling pathways or regulating its SUMO (small-ubiquitin like modifiers) ligase activity in some malignancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that

PIAS3 may be a potential biomarker target for early cancer detection and therapeutic of human CRC. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background and purposeThere is a paucity of information on the role of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a prognosticator after ischaemic stroke. BMS-777607 in vivo We investigated the association between MetS and functional outcome in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. MethodsWe evaluated 691 consecutive patients with acute stroke who were admitted to a tertiary medical center between January 2007 and June 2011. We defined MetS as having three or more of the five cardinal cardiovascular risk factors. Unfavorable functional outcome was determined using responder

analysis, in which the outcome was adjusted by the initial severity of the stroke. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between MetS and unfavorable outcomes (UnFO). ResultsAmong 691 patients, 277 patients were classified as having an UnFO. The association between MetS and UnFO remained significant after adjusting for find more possible confounders; the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.57 (1.13-2.19). The risk for UnFO was

positively associated with the number of MetS components. ConclusionsMetS may be a potent predictor of functional outcome after ischaemic stroke.”
“Background: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and histochemical impact of a new technique of renal repair using a fibrin sealant and Dexon mesh in rats. Methods: Ten groups of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent a bilateral partial nephrectomy 30, 21, 14, 7 to 1 days before sacrifice. Renal repair was accomplished by suturing on one side and using fibrin sealant and Dexon mesh on the opposite side. The time for renal reconstruction was recorded for each approach P005091 nmr and compared. In addition to histological evaluations, the isolated renal tissue studies included immunohistochemical analysis, and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: In comparison with suturing, renal repair using fibrin sealant and Dexon mesh was much faster. We demonstrated a significant attenuation of the initial inflammatory response in the fibrin-Dexon group. The specific alterations in transforming growth factor-beta 1 (Tgf-beta 1) mRNA expression were significantly lower in the fibrin-Dexon group. Conclusions: The fibrin sealant and Dexon mesh significantly simplified the procedure by reducing the time of renal reconstruction.

Late PTSMA failure occurred more frequently in PTSMA procedures p

Late PTSMA failure occurred more frequently in PTSMA procedures performed in the early, less experienced time period (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study confirms that PTSMA, although effective, has a relatively high complication rate. Late PTSMA failure could not be predicted by baseline characteristics but could partially be explained by a learning-curve effect. This finding implies that PTSMA procedures should be restricted to experienced centers. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Heterogeneity in immune defense effectors can benefit hosts Crenolanib datasheet encountering a variety of parasites and pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPS) are a diverse set of immune defense effectors in many

amphibians, and are secreted from dermal granular glands to

protect the skin from infection. Over 50 different skin peptides have been reported from the European water frog hybridogenic complex (Pelophylax esculentus complex), consisting of the hybrid P. esculentus, and the parent species Pelophylax lessonae and Pelophylax ridibundus. In central Europe the hybrid is sympatric with Cl-amidine in vivo only P. lessonae, while in other areas all three species can co-occur. Amphibian immune defenses are likely under selective pressure from emerging pathogens such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). To assess if hybridization affects immune defenses against Bd, we compared skin peptides of the three species in terms of (i) quantity, (ii) activity against Bd, (iii) repertoire, and (iv) stability. Hybrids secreted AMPs at higher quantities and with greater fungicidal activity compared to cohabiting P. lessonae. Compared to P. ridibundus, AMPs from hybrids AICAR ic50 were of similar quantity but slightly greater antifungal activity. Mass spectrometric analyses (MALDI-TOF) revealed that of all three species P. esculentus has the greatest peptide diversity, a repertoire inclusive of peptides occurring in either one or the other parent species. Measurements of degradation dynamics indicate that peptides

remain relatively stable on the skin of all species for over an hour after induction of skin gland secretions. Our data demonstrate that the hybrid has more effective peptide defenses against Bd and a richer peptide repertoire than either parent species. Hybrid advantage in environments hosting virulent pathogens may contribute to disassortative mating preferences, and we suggest that AMP diversity may be analogous to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) heterozygosity by benefiting hosts encountering multiple parasites. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The role of IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK) 1 and its interaction with protein kinase C (PKC)delta in monocytes to regulate IL-1 beta production has not been reported so far. The present study thus investigates such mechanisms in the THP1 cell line and human monocytes.

Methods: The subjects were 102 patients undergoing emergency

\n\nMethods: The subjects were 102 patients undergoing emergency surgery for acute type A dissection from July 2005 to October 2010. They were divided into group I (n = 45) undergoing aortic surgery without tear resection and group II (n = 57) undergoing resection that included AR-13324 the intimal tear.\n\nResults: The postoperative hospital mortality was similar, 13.3% (n = 6) in group I and 12.3% (n = 7) in group II. Of the 102 patients, 69 underwent follow-up computed tomography scanning after discharge, and

the aortic diameter was significantly increased in group I compared with that in group II (P = .035). Dilatation of the descending aorta occurred in 21 patients (30.4%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a patent false lumen (P = .027) and nonexclusion of the entry site (P = .012) were independent risk

factors for aortic dilatation. No difference was found in the LDC000067 freedom from aorta-related clinical events at 4 years, with a rate of 81.9% in group I and 74.4% in group II. Also, no difference was found in the 4-year actuarial survival rate between groups I and II (86.4% and 78.5%, respectively).\n\nConclusions: The prognosis of patients without exclusion of the entry site was acceptable. Careful follow-up is needed for patients with a patent false lumen or nonexcluded entry because of the risk of aortic dilatation.”
“BACKGROUND: Reversal of warfarin with plasma accounts for a large amount of fresh-frozen plasma transfused in the United States. The use of vitaminK is an alternate strategy. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Records of vitaminK prescriptions for warfarin reversal were examined and recipients identified

where data were available on dosage, route of administration (oral [PO] and intravenous [IV]) and the availability of both pre- and postadministration international normalized ratio(s) (INRs). RESULTS: A total of 135 administration events were evaluated: 81 PO and 54 IV. The median (range) preadministration INRs were 5.8 (1.9-16.5) versus 5.0 (1.4-16.5; p=0.61) and the median (range) for the postadministration INRs were 2.4 (1.0-10.4) and 2.1 (1.2-8.2; selleck products p<0.01) for the PO and IV routes, respectively. The median (range) doses were 2.5(1-10) and 2.0(1-10) mg for PO and IV, respectively (p<0.01). A total of 44% of the IV vitaminK group achieved an INR of 2 or less within 12 hours versus 14% for the PO route (p<0.01). In multilinear regression the preadministration INR (r=0.14, p<0.01) and time after administration (r=0.05, p<0.01) were independent variables influencing the postadministration INR but the dose administered (r=0.09, p=0.07) was not. CONCLUSION: VitaminK needs to be given IV if urgent partial correction (<12hr) of warfarin is required. No influence of dose administered in the range 1 to 10mg on the postadministration INR was observed.”
“Percutaneous bifurcation intervention is usually sufficient with a single-stent strategy.

We established the efficacy of gabapentin in patients with refrac

We established the efficacy of gabapentin in patients with refractory chronic cough.\n\nMethods This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken at an outpatient clinic in Australia. Adults with refractory chronic cough (>8 weeks’ duration)

without active respiratory disease or infection were randomly assigned IPI-145 ic106 to receive gabapentin (maximum tolerable daily dose of 1800 mg) or matching placebo for 10 weeks. Block randomisation was done with randomisation generator software, stratified by sex. Patients and investigators were masked to assigned treatment. The primary endpoint was change in cough-specific quality of life (Leicester cough questionnaire [LCQ] score) from baseline to 8 weeks of treatment, analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12608000248369.\n\nFindings 62 patients were randomly assigned to gabepentin (n=32) or placebo (n=30) and ten patients withdrew before the study end. Gabapentin significantly improved cough-specific quality of life compared with placebo (between-group difference in LCQ score during treatment period 1.80, 95% CI 0.56-3.04; p=0.004; number needed

AG-881 cell line to treat of 3.58). Side-effects occurred in ten patients (31%) given gabapentin (the most common being nausea and fatigue) and three (10%) given placebo.\n\nInterpretation The treatment of refractory chronic cough with gabapentin is both effective and well tolerated. These positive effects suggest that central reflex sensitisation is a relevant mechanism in refractory chronic cough.”
“There are eight genotypes A-H of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Most genotypes are further divided into subgenotypes. Genotypes and subgenotypes influence the natural course of infection and therapy. We selleck inhibitor analysed nine sera from HBV carriers from Peru. Using the small hepatitis B surface protein HBs, all samples could be grouped to genotype F. Sequencing of three complete Peruvian genomes showed

that HBV from Peru belongs to subgenotype F1. Two of the genomes from HBeAg positive carriers coded surprisingly for a stop codon in the polymerase-ORF leading to a translational stop after 213 and 214 aa, respectively. The third isolate from an HBe Ag positive carrier had three deletions: aa 1-53 and aa 111-142 in preS. In addition nt. 2002-2087 in the HBc-ORF were deleted, leading to an HBc starting at aa 66.”
“A new, simple and sensitive method was established for solid-phase extraction of benzoylurea insecticides including diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron in water samples using TiO2 nanotubes cartridge prior to their determination by liquid chromatography. The parameters influencing the extraction were investigated and optimized.

Animal models of impulsivity and addiction could

Animal models of impulsivity and addiction could buy STI571 make a significant contribution

to this endeavor. Here, some of the more common behavioral paradigms used to measure different aspects of impulsivity across species are outlined, and the importance of the response to reward-paired cues in such paradigms is discussed. Naturally occurring differences in forms of impulsivity have been found to be predictive of future drug self-administration, but drug exposure can also increase impulsive responding. Such data are in keeping with the suggestion that impulsivity may contribute to multiple stages within the spiral of addiction. From a neurobiological perspective, converging evidence from rat, monkey, and human studies suggest that compromised functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex may critically contribute to the cognitive sequelae of drug abuse. Changes in gene transcription and protein expression within this region may provide insight into the mechanism underlying drug-induced cortical hypofunction, reflecting new molecular targets for the treatment of uncontrolled drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior.”
“Since there is

a strong correlation between tuberous sclerosis and autism, we used a tuberous sclerosis model (Eker see more rat) to test the hypothesis that the increased regional cerebral O-2 consumption in the Eker rat might be associated with autism. We also examined whether this increased cerebral O-2 consumption was related to changes in the activity of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory system. Young (4 weeks) male control Long Evans (n = 14) and Eker (n = 14) rats (70-100 g) were divided into control and bicuculline (1 mg/kg/min for 2 min then 0.1 mg/kg/min for 13 min, GABA(A) receptor antagonist) treated animals. Cerebral regional blood flow (C-14-iodoantipyrine) and O-2 consumption (cryomicrospectrophotometry) were determined in isoflurane anesthetized Crenolanib price rats. We found significantly increased basal O-2 consumption in the cortex (6.3 +/- 0.7 ml O-2/min/100

g Eker vs. 5.1 +/- 0.2 ml O-2/min/100 g control), hippocampus and cerebellum, but not the pons. Regional cerebral blood flow was also elevated in the cortex and hippocampus in Eker rats at baseline, but cerebral O-2 extractions were similar. Bicuculline significantly increased O-2 consumption in the cortex (6.5 +/- 0.3) and all other regions of the control rats, but had no effect on cortex (5.9 +/- 1.5) or other regions of the Eker rats. Cerebral blood flow followed a similar pattern. In conclusion, Eker rats had significantly elevated cerebral O-2 consumption and blood flow, but this was not affected by GABA receptor blockade. This suggested a reduced activity of the GABA(A) receptor in the brains of Eker rats. This may have important implications in the treatment of autism. (C) 2008 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Methods:Medical records of

100 consecutive patien

\n\nMethods:\n\nMedical records of

100 consecutive patients who underwent RALP were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative, perioperative and postoperative parameters between patients in the first 30 cases (Group I), the second 30 cases (Group II) and cases 61-100 (Group III) undergoing RALP were analyzed.\n\nResults:\n\nConsole time was shorter and blood loss was reduced in Groups II and III compared with Group I. Significant differences were found in vesicourethral anastomosis time (46.38 min for Group I vs 31.0 min for Group II vs 27 min for Group III, P < 0.01). Postoperative stay became statistically significantly shorter, from 7.33 days for Group I to 3.93 days for Group II to 3.0 days for Group III. Positive surgical margin of pT2 was reduced (13.3% for Group I, 7.1% for Group II and 0% for Group III) but not Androgen Receptor activity of pT3 (86.7% for Group I, 75% for Group II and 62.9% for Group III). Continence rate at 3 months was higher in Groups II (95%) and III (96.6%) than in Group 1 (76.7%, P <

0.05).\n\nConclusions:\n\nFor every 30 cases of RALP, vesicourethral anastomosis time and postoperative stay were significantly shorter. However, the incidence of surgical margin in pT3 prostate cancer was not ON-01910 cell line significantly reduced. A learning curve of more than 100 cases is required to decrease the positive surgical margin in pT3 tumors.”
“Objective The objective of this study is to ascertain the presence of extrauterine spread in radiologically early stage and grade endometrial cancer. This could be the basis for offering vaginal hysterectomy without salpingo-oophorectomy as an alternative option to primary radical radiotherapy in women with significant medical co-morbidities in whom laparotomy will be contraindicated.\n\nMaterials

and methods. A retrospective cohort study assessing patients with clinically early stage endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, treated at the Gynaecological Oncology Centre, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital and James Paget University Hospital between January 2003 and July 2008. The cancer registry was reviewed, and 542 endometrial cancer cases were identified during the study period, Ilomastat of these 439 were endometrioid type. MR is the standard staging investigation unless there are contraindications. Demographic, clinic-pathologic and surveillance data were collected from hospital records, operative notes and histopathology reports. The histology included tumour type, stage and grade. Post-operative histopathological findings served as a reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity of pre-operative MRI scan were assessed.\n\nResults Of the 439 cases treated during the study periods, 415 patients had an MRI pre-operatively imaging and 14% of these cases showed signs of extrauterine spread. MRI staging was then compared with the histopathology staging; the latter was taken as the gold standard.

4+/-12 1, respectively The post-course mean total knowledge scor

4+/-12.1, respectively. The post-course mean total knowledge score was 74.9+/-8.1, and the attitude score was 88.8+/-9.1 Improvement in knowledge and attitudes was significant (p<0.05).\n\nConclusion. Educational interventions for pharmacy students designed with careful attention to pedagogic principles can improve knowledge about evidence-based smoking-cessation strategies

and enhance positive attitudes to pharmacist roles in smoking cessation.”
“The current shortfall in effectiveness within conservation biology is illustrated by increasing interest in “evidence-based conservation,” whose proponents have identified the need to benchmark conservation initiatives against actions that lead to proven positive effects. The effectiveness of conservation policies, approaches,

and evaluation is under increasing scrutiny, and in these areas models Selleck P5091 of KU-57788 nmr excellence used in business could prove valuable. Typically, conservation programs require years of effort and involve rigorous long-term implementation processes. Successful balance of long-term efforts alongside the achievement of short-term goals is often compromised by management or budgetary constraints, a situation also common in commercial businesses. “Business excellence” is an approach many companies have used over the past 20 years to ensure continued success. Various business excellence evaluations have been promoted that include concepts that could be adapted and applied in conservation programs. We describe a conservation excellence model that shows how scientific processes and results can be aligned with financial and organizational measures of success. We applied the model to two well-documented species conservation programs. In the first, the Po’ouli program, several aspects of improvement were identified, such as more authority for decision making in the

field and better integration of habitat management and population recovery processes. The second example, the black-footed ferret program, could have benefited from leadership effort to reduce bureaucracy and to encourage use of best-practice species recovery Staurosporine chemical structure approaches. The conservation excellence model enables greater clarity in goal setting, more-effective identification of job roles within programs, better links between technical approaches and measures of biological success, and more-effective use of resources. The model could improve evaluation of a conservation program’s effectiveness and may be used to compare different programs, for example during reviews of project performance by sponsoring organizations.”
“Octopus insularis inhabits shallow waters along the coast and oceanic islands of northeastern Brazil, where it is the main target of commercial fishing of octopuses. This study aims to investigate the hypothesis that the tropical O. insularis has a distinct gonadal development and reproductive features when compare to its congener O. vulgaris from the subtropical regions.


review of the available literature is also presented “<


review of the available literature is also presented.”
“Aims Heart failure (HF) patients frequently suffer from episodes of deterioration and may need medical treatment. An adequate HKI-272 order reaction from the patient is needed to decrease the delay between the onset of deterioration and consulting a medical professional (i.e. consulting behaviour). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether depressive symptoms are associated with the duration of the delay between the onset of symptoms of worsening HF and hospitalization, and to examine how consulting behaviour correlates to depressive symptoms and delay in HF patients.\n\nMethods and results Data on the time between the onset of symptoms of worsening HF and hospitalization, depressive symptoms, and self-care behaviour were collected in 958 HF patients (37% female; age 71 +/- 11 years; New York Heart Association functional class II-IV), using validated questionnaires. The median delay time of the total sample was 72 h (ranging from 0 to 243 days). Patients with depressive BI 2536 supplier symptoms delayed longer compared with those without depressive symptoms (120 vs. 54

h, P = 0.001). Patients with depressive symptoms had a 1.5 times higher risk for a delay of >= 72 h, independent of demographic and clinical variables (P = 0.008). Consulting behaviour did not correlate with depressive symptoms but was weakly associated with delay (r = -0.07, P = 0.03).\n\nConclusions Heart failure patients with depressive symptoms have a significantly longer delay between HF deterioration and hospital admission. Interventions designed to improve the consulting behaviour in HF patients with depressive symptoms may have a limited effect on delay. 26s Proteasome structure Further research is needed to obtain more insight into the mechanisms underlying the relationship between

delay and depression.”
“Objective. To determine prevalence of exposure to bullying in an adolescent/young adult gynecology population, whether pelvic pain is an associated somatic complaint, and if health care providers are viewed as a resource. Methods. An anonymous self-reporting survey about exposure to bullying, somatic and mental health symptoms, and disclosure patterns was given to 224 consecutive gynecology patients aged 15 to 24 years in a suburban practice. Results. Prevalence of exposure as a bully, victim, witness, or combination was 80.5%. Missing school for pelvic pain was significantly greater in the bully-victim-witness and victim-witness groups. Taking medication for depression or anxiety was significantly greater in the bully-victim-witness group. No one disclosed bullying exposure to a health care provider. Conclusions. Gynecologists see large numbers of patients exposed to bullying. Patients exposed in combinations of bully, victim, and witness have increased frequency of pelvic pain, depression, and anxiety. Patients do not disclose exposure to bullying to health care providers.

In the population examined, the A allele was found to be preferab

In the population examined, the A allele was found to be preferable in the Mangalica breed group. The most advantageous AA genotype was the least prevalent (8.75%), while the frequencies of AB and BB were 40% and 51.25%, respectively. Remarkably, the average number of piglets born alive per litter was 1.11 +/- 0.39 higher in sows with AA as compared to those with BB genotype. By raising the frequency of the AA genotype, the litter size is likely to increase. However, the effect of PRLR genotypes can differ among pig breeds and even lines. Further

studies may be required to observe and estimate possible pleiotropic effects of this polymorphism on other traits.”
“Provision of palliative care in long-term care (LTC) facilities is important, but limited research has been undertaken to GSK1838705A investigate JQ1 the most appropriate outcome measure for use in this setting. In this systematic review we aimed to measure the psychometric

properties (reliability/validity) and feasibility of palliative outcome measures used to assess the quality of palliative care provided in LTC. For identification of outcome measures we undertook systematic searches of electronic databases from 1 January 2000 to 12 September 2008. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using an appraisal checklist developed for the review to evaluate validity, reliability and feasibility. Ten articles were included in the final

review and these provided specific information on the psychometric properties of 10 outcome measures. Four of these measures reported data specifically for residents in LTC facilities, while the remaining six measures reported a sub-set of data for residents in LTC facilities. The Family Perceptions of Care Scale is considered by the authors as the most suitable outcome measure for use in LTC facilities. Of the remaining nine measures, a further two were also considered suitable for measuring the quality of palliative care in residential aged care facilities. These are the Quality of Dying in Long-term find more Care scale and the Toolkit Interview.”
“Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a new anatase coating with antibacterial properties (Bactercline anatase coating [BAC]) on dental implants in the commitment of stem cells derived from adipose tissue to osteoblasts.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the quantitative expression of specific genes, such as transcriptional factors (runx2 and sp7), bone-related genes (spp1, col1a1, col3a1, alpl, and fosl1), and mesenchymal stem cells marker (eng), was examined.\n\nResults: BAC caused induction of bone-related genes such as sp7, fosl1, alpl, and spp1. In contrast, the expression of runx2, col3a1, and col1a1 was decreased in stem cells treated with BAC with respect to untreated cells.

However, ghrelin antagonist treatment abolished the FAA in schedu

However, ghrelin antagonist treatment abolished the FAA in schedule fed fish under 24 h light, suggesting the involvement of the endogenous ghrelin system in this pre-feeding activity. Altogether these results suggest that ghrelin could be acting as an input for the entrainment of the food-entrainable oscillators in the circadian organization of goldfish. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Resveratrol has

been shown to have antineoplastic effects Bucladesine solubility dmso in vivo and in vitro. However, the effect of resveratrol on the hypoxia-enhanced proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma cells remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of resveratrol on regulating proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma cells under hypoxic conditions. Saos-2 cells were cultured under controlled hypoxic conditions (3% O-2) or normoxic conditions. Resveratrol (50 mu M) was added in the medium; and hypoxia inducible factor-1 SIS3 datasheet alpha (HIF-1 alpha) siRNA was used to inhibit HIF-1 alpha transcription. Proliferation of Saos-2 cells was evaluated by the methabenzthiazuron (MTT) assay. The invasive ability of Saos-2 cells was determined by a Transwell assay. HIF-1 alpha, E-cadherin and vimentin protein levels were detected by western blot analysis. HIF-1 alpha, E-cadherin and vimentin mRNA levels were assessed by RT-PCR. Compared to the control group, hypoxia significantly increased the proliferation

rate and invasive ability of Saos-2 cells. Moreover, hypoxia markedly increased the E-cadherin level and decreased vimentin expression. However, resveratrol learn more or HIF-1 alpha silencing reverted all the above effects of hypoxia in Saos-2 cells. Moreover, resveratrol inhibited HIF-1 alpha protein accumulation without affecting the HIF-1 alpha mRNA level. These data suggest that resveratrol can inhibit the hypoxia-enhanced proliferation, invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition

process in osteosarcoma via downregulation of the HIF-1 alpha protein. Thus, HIF-1 alpha may be a promising drug target of resveratrol in the context of development of anticancer therapy for human osteosarcoma.”
“Objective: To estimate maternal outcome of treated or untreated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).\n\nMethods: French and English publications were searched using PubMed and the Cochrane library.\n\nResults: The diagnosis of GDM includes a high risk population for preeclampsia and Caesarean sections (EL3). The risks are positively correlated with the level of hyperglycaemia in a linear way (EL2). Intensive treatment of mild GDM compared with routine care reduces the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia, gestational hypertension). Moreover, it does not increase the risk of operative vaginal delivery, Caesarean section and postpartum haemorrhage (EL1). Being overweight, obesity and maternal hyperglycaemia are independent risk factors for preeclampsia (EL2).