Body weight, complete blood count, and serum biochemistry were monitored before and after dosing (Day 0 and Day 7). Postmortem observation of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, spleen, lung and heart were performed and organ weights were measured. No body weight or organ weight loss was noted (Figure 4A and B). No adverse effects on liver and kidney indices were noted (Figure 4C-D). In addition, no changes in red and white blood cells plasma indices
were noted at the efficacy doses tested (Additional file 1: Table S1 and Table S2). TAI-1 shows no adverse effect under efficacious oral dose levels. Figure 4 7-day toxicology study of TAI-1 in mice shows no significant change in body weight, organ weight, and plasma indices. C.B-17 SCID mice (n = 8) were orally administered TAI-1 for 7 days and body weights (A) and organ selleck screening library weights (B) were measured. Liver (C) and kidney (D) plasma indices were determined. Safety studies of TAI-1 The clinical application of anticancer drugs is often limited by their non-specific target activity leading to organ toxicity
and other side effects. To evaluate the preliminary safety profile of TAI-1, we investigated the inhibitory potential of TAI-1 against normal cell lines, against a panel of kinases, and also on its binding to hERG, a known target for cardiac toxicity. To determine the cancer cell specificity of TAI-1, normal cell lines were tested. In normal fibroblast (WI-38), renal tubule cells (RPTEC), umbilical vein cells (HuVEC) and aortic smooth muscle (HAoSMC) cell lines, TAI-1 Inhibitor Library had a GI50 of more than 1000 times that of cancer cell GI50 (Table 2), showing a high therapeutic index. When screened against
a panel of known kinases, TAI-1 has no inhibitory effects against these targets Calpain (Figure 5A), confirming the specificity of TAI-1 to Hec1 and against these kinases targets. Figure 5 TAI-1 does not inhibit a number of kinases and hERG at below 10 μM. (A) Inhibition of kinases were performed with 10 μM TAI-1 with standard assays. (B) hERG inhibition was determined with 10 μM TAI-1. Results show good cardiac safety of TAI-1. We have tested TAI-1 with the hERG assay, which assesses the most common mechanism involved in drug-induced prolongation of QT interval, which increases the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia through the inhibition of potassium ion flow and may lead to sudden cardiac death [13, 14]. The hERG channel assay revealed a competition IC50 1000 times that of cancer cell GI50 (Figure 5B), suggesting that this compound has little potential of cardiac toxicity through the hERG channel at the therapeutic doses. In summary, TAI-1 exhibits high specificity to cancer cells and to target and shows no cardiac toxicity by hERG.