This means that the

This means that the Temozolomide MGC may be created through a budding process, where new, satellite glomeruli have been added over evolutionary time. Such a process is suggested by the finding that OSNs carrying genetically similar ORs project to adjacent glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the vinegar fly ( Couto et al., 2005), and a similar arrangement could be envisaged in the moth MGC. Specific factors determining glomerulus formation

has been identified both morphologically (e.g., Oland and Tolbert, 1996) and molecularly (e.g., Rodrigues and Hummel, 2008). These do, however, still not provide a conclusive picture of how the glomerular array might change over evolutionary time. Interestingly, in the hawk moth and the American cockroach Periplaneta americana (Blattaria: Blattidae) a subdivision of the major glomerulus (the cumulus) has been

observed ( Christensen et al., 1995 and Hösl, 1990). find more In both species differential innervation patterns seem to be connected to topographical representation of the antennal length axis. Sexual dimorphism in the AL is not only restricted to the Lepidoptera. Also in drosophilid flies, sexual dimorphism with respect to specific glomeruli has been observed (Figure 6B). An investigation across 37 species of drosophilids from the Hawaiian Islands found two glomeruli enlarged in males across several of the investigated species (Kondoh et al., 2003). The homologous glomeruli

in D. melanogaster (the DA1 and DL3) have also been shown to receive pheromonal input ( van der Goes van Naters and Carlson, 2007). A phylogenetic comparison further revealed that the noted sexual dimorphism has evolved independently in two of the lineages. Male-specific macroglomerulus/macroglomeruli have also been found in several other insect groups, such as, e.g., cockroaches, wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), and bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) ( Jawlovski, 1948), but is probably a much more widespread phenomenon, from having evolved wherever a need for long-distance detection of female produced volatile pheromones is present. Other environmental selection pressures beyond pheromones, including food and oviposition site-associated odors, can also shape glomerular organization and structure. For example, the two glomeruli (DM2 and VM5d) in the fly D. sechellia, targeted by OSNs tuned to its singular food source, the noni-fruit, are 200% larger in both sexes relative to D. melanogaster ( Dekker et al., 2006) ( Figure 6C). Interestingly, the expansion of the noni-fruit specific detection system in D. sechellia not only provides higher sensitivity to the fruit odors, but it also makes the fly tolerant to much higher odor concentrations that would inhibit attraction in all other fruit flies. The mechanisms underlying this dual function are still unclear.

Among 348 place fields from 289 cells, 241

corresponded t

Among 348 place fields from 289 cells, 241

corresponded to single place fields and 107 belonged to cells having multiple place fields (37 double and 11 triple-place-field cells). In the maze, taking TPSM phase into account to discriminate between IN-PF and compound screening assay OUT-PF firing increased spatial information content by 62% ± 6% (initial mean information content = 0.55 ± 0.04 bit/spike, net gain from TPSM phase = 0.29 ± 0.03 bit/spike, p < 0.05 paired Student t test, n = 250 TPSM phase-locked place fields; Figure 6D). We ran statistical analysis and found that the spikes from 58% of all pairs of multiple place fields displayed different TPSM phase locking (among 96 pairs of multiple place fields, 56 were statistically different, Kuiper test, p < 0.05). Taking TPSM into account for discrimination of double place fields increased the information content by 72% ± 10% (initial selleck products mean information content = 0.2 ± 0.02 bit/spike, net gain from TPSM phase =

0.17 ± 0.03 bit/spike, p < 0.05 paired Student t test, n = 94 TPSM-phase-locked place-field pairs; Figure 6D). Similarly in the wheel, 65% of episode fields were significantly associated with specific TPSM phase (Figures 5D and 6E), and TPSM increased the discrimination information content for IN versus OUT EpF by 92% ± 6% (initial mean information content = 0.44 ± 0.0 bit/spike, net gain from TPSM phase = 0.26 ± 0.02 bit/spike, p < 0.05, paired Student t test, n = 231 TPSM-phase-locked episode-fields; Figure 6F). Like place cells, 40% of episode cells had multiple episode fields, and taking TPSM into account increased episode fields discrimination information by 64% ± 9% (initial mean information content =

0.11 ± 0.01 bit/spike, net gain from TPSM phase = 0.06 ± 0.01 bit/spike, p < 0.05 paired Student t test, n = 177 TPSM phase-locked Metalloexopeptidase episode-field pairs; Figure 6F). Considering the robust consistency in information gain, we propose that TPSM has the potential to significantly increase spatial (and time-related) information content and disambiguate between the multiple place fields (and episode fields) of the same cell. Searching for potential mechanisms that could account for location-dependent (i.e., IN-PF spikes) phase locking of spikes to TPSM, we considered the possibility for a correlation between firing rate or discharge mode (bursts instead of single spikes) and TPSM phase. If for example a neuron would discharge at different TPSM phases as a function of its firing rate (or mode), one might expect that IN-PF firing would be preferentially locked to TPSM phases related to high firing rates (or bursts) while OUT-PF firing would preferentially occur on TPSM phases related to lower firing rates.

2 or larger Genomic controls (Devlin et al , 2001) for the case-

2 or larger. Genomic controls (Devlin et al., 2001) for the case-control phenotype were calculated with R-2.5.0 ( on a genome-wide level in the MARS GWAS sample. In addition, population stratification was tested with EIGENSTRAT implemented in EIGENSOFT (Price et al., 2006)

(∼reich/EIGENSTRAT.htm). Neither the genomic control method (λ = 1.023, see Figure S1) nor EIGENSTRAT analysis gave any indication for population stratification. The LD pattern and haplotype block delineation were determined by applying Haploview 4.0 ( (Barrett et al., 2005). Blocks were defined using the confidence interval method described KU-55933 chemical structure by Gabriel et al. (Gabriel et al., 2002). Pairwise LD measures (r2 and D’) were calculated in the 366 healthy controls of the

GWAS sample and in 284 controls of the African-American sample for the eight most associated SNPs on chr12.21.31 (see Figure 2). German controls were also compared to the HapMap CEU population (CEPH sample consisting of Utah residents with Vorinostat ancestry from northern and western Europe, n = 60, (Frazer et al., 2007). No deviation in LD could be observed in this comparison (data not shown). Genome-wide case-control analyses were conducted by applying the WG-Permer software ( For post-hoc analyses, applications in R-2.5.0 ( and SPSS for Windows (releases 16, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) were used. SNPs with genotype distributions deviating from HWE at a significance level of 10−5 or 0.05 with a call rate below 98% or 95% in the GWAS or German replication sample, respectively, and SNPs with a MAF below 5% were excluded from statistical analysis. Autosomal SNPs were tested for association with unipolar depressive disorder in a case-control design 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase using Chi-square test statistics under allelic and both alternative recessive-dominant modes of inheritance. The level of significance was set to 5% (family-wise error rate). Nominal p values were corrected for

multiple comparisons by the permutation-based minimum p method proposed by Westfall and Young (Westfall and Young, 1993 and Westfall et al., 2001) under 104 permutations over the three performed genetic models and all SNPs tested per study. Empirical and nominal p values for all reported associations did not deviate from each other. Moreover, sample demographic statistics and post-hoc tests on age, gender, and German origin, life events, recurrence of MD, age at onset, number of previous depressive episodes, first-degree family history of MD, and lifetime attempted suicide status were performed by logistic regression analysis and ANCOVA. P values including these covariates did not differ from those of the Chi square test statistics for all reported associations.

, 2011) Having established the essential role of DEG-1, next we

, 2011). Having established the essential role of DEG-1, next we sought to determine how missense mutations in the DEG-1 protein affect MRCs by recording from deg-1(u506u679) mutants. This mutant allele was recovered

in a screen for suppressors of deg-1(u506)-induced necrotic cell death and encodes two point mutations ( García-Añoveros et al., 1995): an alanine to threonine change in the extracellular domain (A393T) that causes cell death when present alone and a glycine to arginine change in the conserved second transmembrane domain (G710R) that suppresses the A393T-induced cell death. We chose to study this allele because a change in the equivalent glycine residue of MEC-4(G716D) or MEC-10(G676R) alters the reversal potential and ion selectivity of MRCs recorded in PLM neurons ( Figure 4A; O’Hagan et al., 2005). If DEG-1 Alectinib cell line is a pore forming subunit of the MeT channel then the G710R mutation should

shift the reversal potential of MRCs in ASH. We VX-809 mouse tested this prediction by recording MRCs in deg-1(u506u679). Mechanoreceptor currents in u506u679 mutants were smaller than in wild-type ( Figures 4B and 4C) but larger than in deg-1 deletion mutants ( Table 1), suggesting that this allele is not null. Nevertheless, the effect of u506u679 on MRC amplitude is sufficient to induce a modest decrease in the ability of animals to respond to nose touch ( Figure 4D). Unlike wild-type MRCs, which have an estimated reversal potential of more than +100 mV in control saline, u506u679 MRCs reverse polarity near 0 mV ( Figure 4E). Thus, u506u679 alters the ion selectivity of MRCs in vivo. We note that the reversal potential of this mutant is different than that measured for deg-1 null mutants, supporting the idea that u506u679 is not a null allele of deg-1. We do not know whether the effect of u506u679 on ion selectivity is due to the extracellular A393T mutation, the G710R mutation in the second transmembrane domain, or both.

However, since the G710R mutation in DEG-1 affects the residue equivalent to the one mutated in mec-4(u2) [G716D] and mec-10(u20) [G676R] that alters the reversal potential of MRCs in PLM, it seems likely ALOX15 that this point mutation accounts for the change in selectivity. Regardless of whether the change in selectivity depends on one or both point mutations, this finding demonstrates DEG-1 is a pore-forming subunit of a channel that is critical for generating mechanoreceptor currents in ASH. The osm-9 and ocr-2 genes encode TRPV channel proteins coexpressed in ASH and required for ASH-mediated responses to noxious physical and chemical stimuli ( Colbert et al., 1997 and Tobin et al., 2002). Loss of osm-9 inhibits nose touch-evoked calcium transients in ASH ( Hilliard et al., 2005), supporting the idea that TRPV proteins form sensory mechanotransduction channels in ASH and elsewhere. Until now, this idea has not been tested directly.

Illustrative H&E-stained retinal sections from informative genoty

Illustrative H&E-stained retinal sections from informative genotypes are presented in Figure 3. Each of these representative images is taken from 30% of the DV axis of the retina. While the wild-type ONL has an average KU-57788 cell line thickness of ∼45 μm, consisting of 12–15 compact, darkly staining PR nuclei (Figures 3A and 3F are examples from different mice), the ONL of Mertk−/− retinae are only 2–4 nuclei thick ( Figure 3B), and outer segments (OS) are almost entirely eliminated (white expanse above ONL in Figure 3B). In comparison, the Gas6−/− retina has a normal ONL thickness, and dense, well-elaborated outer segments ( Figure 3C; see below). Pros1fl/-/Nes-Cre/Gas6−/− mice

( Figures 3D and 3G are representative examples from two different animals) display the same severe ONL depletion as that seen in the Mertk−/− mice ( Figure 3B), with few surviving PR nuclei and an almost complete obliteration of the OS layer. Very dramatically, adding back just one allele of Gas6 to these badly damaged retinae restores the ONL to a normal configuration at 12 weeks ( Figure 3E). Removing Protein S

from RPE cells with the Trp1-Cre driver, combined with complete elimination of Gas6, yields an intermediate ONL depletion phenotype, with partial PR loss and a thinning of the OS layer ( Figures 3H and 3I). This phenotype is again restored to normal by the provision of just a single wild-type selleck kinase inhibitor Gas6 allele ( Figure 3J). Although retinae in which only one TAM ligand gene is inactivated display a wild-type ONL phenotype (Figures 2A–2C), careful comparison of outer segment histology revealed subtle but significant differences between these mutants and wild-type mice. The OS layer of the Gas6−/− mice,

for example, is actually fuller (denser) and longer than wild-type (a representative comparison is shown in Figure 4A). We measured the average outer-to-inner segment length (OS:IS) ratio at the center of the wild-type retina at 1.79 ± 0.15, whereas the same ratio in the Gas6 knockouts was 2.49 ± 0.18 ( Figure 4B). (This measurement stands in contrast to an earlier anecdotal report [ Hall et al., 2005].) This increase is due entirely to an increase in OS length in Gas6−/− individuals ( Figure 4A; compare also Figure 3C to Figures 3A and 3F). Similarly, while removing all of the Linifanib (ABT-869) Protein S from the retina in a Gas6+/+ background has no effect on ONL thickness in the central retina at 12 weeks ( Figure 2), Pros1fl/-/Nes-Cre/Gas6+/+ mice also display an increase in their OS:IS length ratio, albeit a more modest one, to 2.05 ± 0.15 ( Figure 4B). Inactivating one Gas6 allele in these mice (in Pros1fl/-/Nes-Cre/Gas6+/− individuals) increases this ratio to 2.32 ± 0.19 ( Figure 4B; compare also OS length in Figure 3E versus Figures 3A and 3F). Finally, a Pros1fl/-/Trp1-Cre/Gas6+/− retina also displays an obviously greater OS:IS ratio ( Figure 4B; compare also OS in Figure 3J to Figures 3A and 3F).

, 2008; Wang et al , 2010), a recent genome-wide screen showed th

, 2008; Wang et al., 2010), a recent genome-wide screen showed that the GRM gene family encoding mGluRs, most frequently GRM5, and genes interacting with it are enriched for CNVs in ADHD ( Elia et al., 2012; Lesch et al., 2012b). ADHD is characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity, increased impulsivity and emotional dysregulation with a specific constellation of deficits in motivation, working memory and cognitive control of executive functions, thus displaying syndromal overlap with ASD. Other CNV findings concerned GRM1 duplications, GRM7 deletions, and GRM8 deletions. Overall the findings indicate that up to 10% of individuals

with ADHD may be enriched for mGluR network variants. Several of these genes play a central role in the process of neurogenesis, synaptic transmission and network connectivity that has been argued to be defective SCH727965 clinical trial in ADHD. Specifically, mGluRs modulate mRNA generation, alternative splicing and translation, processes known to influence circuitry-specific formation, activity and

plasticity of synapses ( Bockaert et al., 2010; Knafo and Esteban, 2012). Disruption of frontostriatal circuitries which are involved in motor control and action learning, is thought to represent a specific characteristic of ADHD pathophysiology click here (Cubillo et al., 2012; de Zeeuw et al., 2012). Enhanced short-range connectivity within motivation-reward networks and their decreased connectivity with structures Carnitine dehydrogenase comprising the default-mode and dorsal attention networks have been reported, indicating impaired crosstalk among cognitive control and reward pathways that may reflect attentional and motivational deficits in ADHD (Tomasi and Volkow, 2012; Volkow et al., 2012). Since it is abundantly expressed in dendritic spines of structural units of the frontostriatal circuit including

nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum and PFC, mGluR5 not only interacts with signaling of dopamine and 5-HT receptors but also with NMDA receptors, resulting in reciprocal and agonist-independent inhibition of the two receptors (Perroy et al., 2008). While mGluR5 is confined to the periphery of the synapse, NMDA receptors are located vis-à-vis of the glutamate release site in the PSD comprising the multiprotein HOMER-SHANK-GKAP-PSD-95 scaffolding complex physically and functionally linking the two receptors (Fagni et al., 2008). Moreover, the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum receive extensive serotonergic input mediated by a multitude of 5-HT receptors including subtypes 5-HT1-4 (Figure 2). 5-HT activates 5-HT1B receptors resulting in a cAMP-dependent LTD-associated decrease of glutamate release and striatal output (Mathur et al., 2011; Navailles and De Deurwaerdere, 2011). This 5-HT-induced LTD is independent of dopamine, suggesting that serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling pathways both interact in corticostriatal circuit plasticity.

Within approximately 20 min, the resting membrane potential of mo

Within approximately 20 min, the resting membrane potential of most neurons returned to their initial values (81%, 17/21). Near the site of high-intensity laser exposure, a gap of ∼5 μm became visible, and distal parts of the axon showed typical beading and degeneration (Figures 4A and S2). Axotomy proximal

to the node (P) was made either in the internode (P, 90–140 μm, n = 5, Figure 4A, right) or within the AIS (15–50 μm, Rucaparib concentration n = 7). To isolate the impact of axotomizing the first branchpoint from nonspecific changes (asymmetric current flow at the sealed end, heat-related swelling, phototoxicity, etc.), a control group was included in which the axon was cut distal from the identified first node (D, 120–160 μm, n = 5, Figure 4A, Selleckchem MK 2206 middle). Figures 4A and 4B show an example in which the same axon was axotomized at two different locations with an interval of

25 min. The intrinsically burst firing neuron (236 Hz in control) continued firing at high frequency (240 Hz) when axotomized distal to the branchpoint, but switched to RS mode after a second cut proximal to the branchpoint (9.6 Hz). Data from multiple recordings showed that axotomy of the first branchpoint in IB neurons (230 ± 3 Hz) led to a RS mode (10.2 ± 0.4 Hz, n = 6; unpaired t test p < 0.001; Figure 4C). In contrast, in RS cells the firing rates at steady current injections remained similar to control (control, 7.7 Hz versus cut, 5.6 Hz, paired t test p > 0.09, Figure 5C). Axotomy proximal to the branchpoint did not affect the input resistance at resting potential (1.9 ± 1.0 MΩ increase, paired t test p > 007, n = 12, Figure S2). Similar to axons cut in the slice preparation, axotomy proximal to the first node significantly increased the AP threshold during steady current injections (+6.8 ± 1.1 mV, p < 0.01, Figure 4D) and reduced the ADP amplitude (−3.8 ± 0.6 mV, n = 5, p < 0.05,

Figure 4E). However, single APs were not affected when the axotomy was made distal of the first node; the AP amplitude (+0.3 ± 1.7 mV change), ADP (−0.5 ± 0.5 mV change), and voltage threshold (+1.6 ± 0.5 mV change) remained similar to control values (for all, paired t test p > Tolmetin 0.3, n = 5). The only specific impact of cutting within the AIS (on average 35 ± 5.4 μm, n = 7) was a significantly larger reduction in the ADP (−12.0 ± 2.7 mV, compared to internodal axotomy p < 0.05, n = 7, Figure 4E). Interestingly, large negative ADP amplitudes observed after laser axotomy in the AIS were quantitatively similar to the ADP amplitudes associated with axons that were cut in the AIS during the slice-cutting procedure (acute axotomy: −12.0 mV for a 35 μm axon versus slice cut: −10.5 mV for a 32 μm axon), suggesting that the functional consequences of acute transections (30 min) are comparable to the lasting impact by slice cutting (2–8 hr).

In the adult brain temporal entrainment of prelimbic-hippocampal

In the adult brain temporal entrainment of prelimbic-hippocampal networks that takes place during specific behavioral epochs has been described as the main mechanism CT99021 manufacturer underlying the transfer and storage of information, thus underlying the mnemonic and executive abilities of animals and humans (Siapas and Wilson, 1998, Sirota et al., 2008 and Hyman et al., 2010). For example, the coupling between the PL and Hipp as well as the portion of phase-locked prefrontal neurons increases during anxiety-like behavior and during working or spatial memory tasks (Adhikari et al., 2010, Hyman et al., 2010 and Moran et al., 2010). Functional basis of this behaviorally relevant coupling are the direct

monosynaptic projections timing the prefrontal and hippocampal firing (Siapas et al., 2005)

as well as the PFC organization find more in hypercolumns that are globally “pushed” by the hippocampal input during the task (Hasselmo, 2005 and Hyman et al., 2005). During development the strong prefrontal-hippocampal communication is not related to an overt behavioral task, but takes place during sleep. We propose that the oscillatory drive from the Hipp facilitates not only the morphological and functional development of the PFC but enables also the refinement of the behaviorally relevant communication scaffold between the two areas. Neonatal prelimbic neurons receive via synaptic projections theta-phase

modulated inputs from the Hipp and start to tune their firing. As long as the functional hypercolumns amplifying the hippocampal signal in the PFC are not fully refined, a very low number of prefrontal neurons seems to be clocked by the Hipp and may act as a sort of “hub” that organizes the local networks (Bonifazi et al., 2009). This hippocampus-timed gamma entrainment of local networks may shape and plastically modify the prelimbic connectivity. The PFC reaches its functional maturation during adolescence by undergoing an intense reorganization and pruning of connectivity under the influence of various neurotransmitters. At this developmental stage the PFC and Hipp are still synchronized and theta entrained, but their network and cell-to-cell interactions are not unidirectional anymore. The temporary loss of precision within juvenile prefrontal-hippocampal communication Bay 11-7085 may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to impulsive and uncontrolled behavior during adolescence (Casey et al., 2008). Because the early theta drive from the Hipp seems to be mandatory for the refinement of functional organization within the PFC and for precise prefrontal-hippocampal interactions, this developmental period corresponding to the second and third trimester of gestation in humans (Clancy et al., 2001) may be considered as critical period for the maturation of mnemonic and executive abilities.

Measures of altered hormone are reported in chronic migraine pati

Measures of altered hormone are reported in chronic migraine patients (including prolactin, cortisol, and melatonin), which is indicative of abnormalities

in circadian biology (Peres et al., 2001). Thus, the hypothalamus may control systems that could have many functional implications through such alterations in hormone and autonomic function, impinging on many organ systems, including the brain. One example is that of the association of obesity and migraine (Peterlin et al., 2010). Alterations in hypothalamic control Selleckchem Y 27632 may be manifest and contribute to both syndromes, because alterations in neurotransmitters and hypothalamic peptides may be abnormal in both conditions. Given that there may be multiple stressors that contribute to the allostatic load (Figure 4) and increased disease burden with chronification selleck products (Figure 5), ideally, one could evaluate and quantify each and provide a rational approach to devolving, uncoupling, diminishing direct inputs onto systems that modulate the allostatic load and directly impact those systems that have been altered. A new approach to defining and measuring the relative contributions

and their cumulative or additive effects would bring opportunities to improve diseases such as migraine where we only have a limited response in terms of preventing the attacks and/or treating chronic migraine. Specifically, the following principles would seem to be salient: (1) intervene as early as possible to prevent the negative cascade; (2) top-down interventions (e.g., exercise, social support, stress reduction, diet, etc. [see McEwen and Gianaros, 2011]) to help reestablish systemic and brain “balance,”

which may include plastic changes and neuronal connectivity (Castrén, 2005); (3) pharmacotherapy may contribute to the top-down process and may be more efficacious in the context of other modulators of allostasis. One example in support of interactive others effects is the use of antidepressants in the context of a positive therapeutic environment and the notion that multiple therapies may be more beneficial than a single treatment (March et al., 2004). Another example in support of our proposal is the efficacy of antidepressants, along with physiotherapy, in recovery of motor function after stroke (Chollet et al., 2011). (4) On the other hand, as noted above, some medications may contribute to the allostatic overload and make the condition worse. Thus, targeting treatments in the context of modification of multiple neurobiological systems would seem like a rational process to implement at a clinical level. Specific targets include behavioral targets (including sleep and stress modification), but also those directed at brain systems, as noted below.

, 2008) For details see the Supplemental Experimental Procedures

, 2008). For details see the Supplemental Experimental Procedures. Mouse primary cortical neurons (DIV9) were transfected with plasmids carrying scrambled or Cyfip1 shRNA and Cyfip1 WT or mutants using a calcium phosphate method ( Sans et al., 2003). At DIV14, neurons HCS assay were fixed for 20 min in PFA/SEM (4% PFA, 0.12 M sucrose, 3 mM EGTA, 2 mM MgCl2 in PBS).

Primary cortical neurons were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA/SEM), permeabilized with 0.2% Triton X-100, and incubated overnight with the antibodies, as indicated in the Supplemental Experimental Procedures. Confocal images were obtained as described in the Supplemental Experimental Procedures. Immunoblotting was performed using standard protocols. Antibodies list and usage is described in the Supplemental Experimental Procedures. See the Supplemental

Experimental Procedures. A confocal laser-scanning microscope (Nikon) with 40× or 60× oil objectives with sequential acquisition setting at 2,048 × 2,048 pixels resolution was used. For immunofluorescence (IF), only a z series was acquired; for spine analysis, each image was a z series projection, of ∼7 to 9 images each, averaged two times and taken at 0.8 μm depth intervals. Images were processed and analyzed with ImageJ 1.44 software. Five 20 μm segments starting at least 25 μm from the cell soma were analyzed for each neuron. F-EGFP or DiI staining was used to outline the profile of the dendritic shaft and protrusions. Maximal spine head width (WH), neck width (WN), and length (L) were measured for each dendritic protrusion. Spines were defined as follows: Stubby (L ≤ 1 μm), Mushroom (1 < L ≤ 3 μm; WH ≥ 2 × WN), Long Thin (1 < L ≤ 3 μm; WH < 2 × WN), and Filopodia (3 < L ≤ 5 μm). At least ten randomly chosen neurons/condition from three independent cultures were imaged for quantification. Counts and data analysis were conducted blind to experimental condition. Cortical

synaptoneurosomes were prepared as previously described (Napoli et al., 2008). Pre- and postsynaptic fractions were isolated from cortical synaptoneurosomes almost as previously described (Phillips et al., 2001). See the Supplemental Experimental Procedures for details. Primary mouse cortical neurons were prepared as previously described (Ferrari et al., 2007). See the Supplemental Experimental Procedures for details and treatments with BDNF, cycloheximide, and actinomycin D (Sigma). The procedure was slightly modified from Napoli et al. (2008). See the Supplemental Experimental Procedures for details. See the Supplemental Experimental Procedures. HEK293T cells were used as packaging cells and transfected by the calcium phosphate method (Chen and Okayama, 1987) with second generation plasmids (pLKO.1, Mission shRNA, Sigma-Aldrich) (Naldini et al., 1996) carrying scrambled or Cyfip1 shRNAs. See the Supplemental Experimental Procedures for details.