The error variance is estimated using exponential window averaging with a variable forgetting factor and a simple moving averaging technique. The input regressors
are selected according to two different criteria to update the filter coefficients at each iteration. Simulations, carried out for different adaptive filtering applications, demonstrate that the new algorithm provides fast initial convergence and low steady-state misalignment without necessarily trading off one for the other in addition Barasertib manufacturer to a significant reduction in average computational complexity. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of storage time at +4 degrees C on red blood cell count (RBC), haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell count (WBC), thrombocyte count (TC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in mullet (Mugil cephalus) using an automatic method. After
blood collection (T-0), all samples were analyzed 3-Methyladenine manufacturer using both the manual and automatic method. To test the validation of the automatic method, a paired t-test was applied, and no statistical difference was observed. The samples were successively divided into four different aliquots and stored at +4 degrees C to assess the haematological parameters using the automatic method. The first aliquot was refrigerated for 6 h, the second one for 24 h, the third one for 48 h and the last one at for 72 h. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant effect of storage time (P<0.05) on Hb, WBC, TC, MCH and MCHC. These results suggest that haematological parameters can be assessed within 6 h from blood collection when samples are stored at +4 degrees C because long-term storage modifies the results of the analyses. Further studies on these parameters could be still needed in various fish species to validate an appropriate method for haematological analysis useful not only for the evaluation of the health status of animal living in captivity and in aquaculture
but also to have reliability environmental haematological biomarkers. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“MarR Napabucasin inhibitor is a key regulator of the marRAB operon involved in antibiotic resistance and solvent stress tolerance in Escherichia coli. We show that two metabolic intermediates, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate and anthranilate, involved in enterobactin and tryptophan biosynthesis, respectively, can activate marRAB transcription. We also found that a third intermediate involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis, 4-hydroxybenzoate, activates marRAB transcription in the absence of TolC. Of the three, however, only 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate directly binds MarR and affects its activity.”
“Objective. To determine the impact of the onset of hand problems on global physical functioning in community-dwelling older adults.\n\nMethods.
“The bacterial Sm-like protein, Hfq, is a key factor for the stability and function of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in Escherichia coli. Homologues of this protein have been predicted in many distantly related organisms yet their functional selleck inhibitor conservation as sRNA-binding proteins has not entirely been clear. TO address this, we expressed in Salmonella the Hfq proteins of two eubacteria (Neisseria
meningitides, Aquifex aeolicus) and an archaeon (Methanocaldococcus jannaschii), and analyzed the associated RNA by deep sequencing. This in vivo approach identified endogenous Salmonella sRNAs as a major target of the foreign Hfq proteins. New Salmonella sRNA species were also identified, and some of these accumulated specifically in the presence of a foreign Hfq protein. In addition, we observed specific RNA processing defects, e.g., suppression of precursor processing of SraH sRNA by Methanocaldococcus Hfq, or aberrant accumulation of extracytoplasmic target mRNAs of the Salmonella GcvB, MicA or RybB sRNAs. Taken together, our study provides evidence of a conserved inherent sRNA-binding property of Hfiq, which may facilitate Selleckchem Akt inhibitor the lateral transmission of regulatory sRNAs among distantly related species. It also suggests that the expression of heterologous
RNA-binding proteins combined with deep sequencing analysis of RNA ligands can be used as a molecular tool to dissect individual steps of RNA metabolism in vivo.”
“We present a numerical study of the effects of the energy barrier between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the acceptor layer and the cathode, the thicknesses of the donor layer and acceptor layer on the distributions of carrier density, the electric fields and the electric potentials of organic planar heterojunction solar cells. Lonafarnib clinical trial We obtained the quantitative dependencies of the distribution of carrier density,
electric fields and the electric potentials on these quantities. The results provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental study of open-circuit organic planar heterojunction solar cells.”
“Public demand to conserve biodiversity has resulted in increased monitoring efforts for a vast number of species. Faced with reporting on the large amounts of information generated by biodiversity monitoring, there is a desire to have state variables that simplify this complexity. Intactness indices describe the deviation of the state of biodiversity from a specified reference condition. An effective intactness index should not only statistically describe changes in biodiversity when change occurs but also resonate with people in a way that they have a clear picture of the type of change that has occurred. We used an online survey to evaluate whether public perception of cumulative impacts as viewed through images of disturbed boreal landscapes was correlated with actual indices of avian biodiversity intactness.
The cold shock response leads to a growth block and overall repression of translation; however, there is the induction of a set of specific proteins that help to tune cell metabolism and readjust it to the new conditions. For a mesophile like E. coli, the adaptation process takes about 4 h. Although the bacterial cold shock response was discovered over two decades ago we are still far from understanding this process. In this review, we aim find more to describe current knowledge, focusing on the functions of RNA-interacting proteins and RNases
involved in cold shock adaptation.”
“The genetic parameters for Brahman cattle under the tropical conditions of Mexico are scarce. Therefore, heritabilities, additive direct and maternal correlations, and genetic correlations for birth weight (BW) and 205 days adjusted weaning weight (WW205) were estimated in four Brahman cattle herds in Yucatan, Mexico. Parameters were estimated fitting a bivariate
animal model, with 4,531 animals in the relationship matrix, of which 2,905 had BW and 2,264 had WW205. The number of sires and dams identified for both traits were 122 and 962, respectively. Direct PARP cancer heritability estimates for BW and WW205 were 0.41 +/- 0.09 and 0.43 +/- 0.09, and maternal heritabilities were 0.15 +/- 0.07 and 0.38 +/- 0.08, respectively. Genetic correlations between direct additive and maternal genetic effects for BW and WW205 were -0.41 +/- 0.22 and -0.50 +/- 0.15, respectively. The direct genetic, maternal, and phenotypic correlations between BW and WW205 were 0.77 +/- 0.09, 0.61 +/- 0.18, and 0.35, respectively. The moderate to high genetic parameter estimates suggest that genetic improvement by selection is possible for those traits. The maternal effects and their correlation with direct effects should be taken into account to reduce bias in genetic evaluations.”
“Multiple myeloma, the second most common hematological
cancer, is currently incurable due to refractory disease relapse and development of multiple drug resistance. We and others recently established the biophysical model this website that myeloma initiating (stem) cells (MICs) trigger the stiffening of their niches via SDF-1/CXCR4 paracrine; The stiffened niches then promote the colonogenesis of MICs and protect them from drug treatment. In this work we examined in silico the pharmaceutical potential of targeting MIC niche stiffness to facilitate cytotoxic chemotherapies. We first established a multi-scale agent-based model using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to recapitulate the niche stiffness centric, pro-oncogenetic positive feedback loop between MICs and myeloma-associated bone marrow stromal cells (MBMSCs), and investigated the effects of such intercellular chemo-physical communications on myeloma development.
0%, 35.3%, 28.1%, 19.8%, 18.4%, 15.3%, and 20.6% among < 5, 5-9, 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and 50 and over age groups, respectively. Protection against Hib infection increased by age in all 3 provinces.\n\nConclusion:
This Prexasertib Cell Cycle inhibitor study provides important baseline data on anti-Hib antibody levels in Turkey before routine immunization was introduced, and shows that there is a considerable percentage of subjects with non-protective antibody levels.”
“Surgery of complicated sigmoid diverticulitis should be as gentle as possible. Serious time pressure, unpredictable operation fields and unprepared bowel determine the surgical strategy. Hence, we examine whether minimal invasive surgery (MIS) (i. e., Hartmann procedure) is suited for emergency conditions in selected patients. Furthermore, the objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of the reversal of Hartmann procedure in appropriate patients after a preceding classical or laparoscopic intervention. Between 2005 and 2009 128 patients with sigma diverticulitis were operated, 72 patients of them with complicated sigmoid diverticulitis (peritonitis, Lonafarnib haemorrhage, ileus, perforation), The classical Hartmann procedure was performed in 45 (35%) patients, 39 of them being treated within 24 hours. The laparoscopically assisted Hartmann procedure was realised in 15 patients
and could be successfully completed in 13 cases. The corresponding mortality rate was 0%. A Hartmann reversal could be performed in 26 patients (58%). A laparoscopic approach was chosen in 16 patients and could be successfully completed in 14 cases. 12 patients were operated with classical Hartmann reversal. The respective mortality rates in both groups were 0%.
We therefore click here conclude that in cases of peritonitis due to sigmoid diverticulitis laparoscopic surgery, like laparoscopically assisted Hartmann procedure and a subsequent laparoscopically assisted reversal could be recommended in selected patients.”
“Well-defined quaternized poly(2-aminoethyl acrylate)s (qPAEAs) have been synthesized by RAFT polymerization of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-aminoethyl acrylate (t-BocAEA) followed by t-Boc group deprotection. The ability of qPAEAs to act as potential “smart” DNA carriers has been shown by plasmid DNA/qPAEA complexation and qPAEA degradation in water at 37 degrees C without any trigger.”
“One of the hallmarks of arthritis is swollen joints containing unusually high quantities of hyaluronan. Intact hyaluronan molecules facilitate cell migration by acting as ligands for CD44. Hyaluronan degradation products, readily formed at sites of inflammation, also fuel inflammatory processes. Irrespective of whether viruses could be a cause of rheumatoid arthritis, there is clear evidence that links viral infections to this debilitating disease. For this study, live Epstein-Barr virus and a number of double-and single-stranded synthetic viral analogs were tested for their effectiveness as activators of hyaluronan (HA) synthesis.
Additionally, when W-CGH was performed using DNAs from the Iberian breeds Castellana and Ojalada, chromosomal pericentromeric regions revealed quantitatively and qualitatively a presence of DNA families similar to that obtained from any of
the above-cited breeds. On the contrary, when the DNA used in W-CGH experiments was obtained from Assaf, as compared to either Castellana or Ojalada, two different pericentromeric DNA families of highly repetitive sequences could be detected. Lastly, sex chromosomes were shown to be homogeneous among all breeds and thus revealed no detectable constitutive heterochromatin. W-CGH results were confirmed using DNA breakage detection-FISH experiments (DBD-FISH) carried out on lymphocytes. As a whole, the results showed that two different repetitive DNA families are present in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of the https://www.selleckchem.com/products/DAPT-GSI-IX.html sheep breeds studied here. Additionally, they suggest a differential presence of these distinct JQ1 order repetitive DNA families in Castellana and Ojalada breeds as compared to the Assaf breed. Finally, the results of W-CGH after using mouflon as the targeted chromosomes also
show that the two DNA families are present in the ancestor. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“In this study, we identified two Haemaphysalis species present at the Khao Yai National Park in Thailand and investigated the presence of rickettsia in these ticks. A total of 166 Haemaphysalis specimens were collected randomly under leaves along visitor paths at five locations in the park. Male and female adults of two different Haemaphysalis species, H. shimoga and H. lagrangei, were identified. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed
Rickettsia bacteria in these two Haemaphysalis species; this study represents the first time IWR-1-endo price such presence has been reported in Thailand. The infection rates of Rickettsia were in both H. shimoga (7.41%) and H. lagrangei (10.17%) at these locations in addition to two pools of Haemahysalis nymphs (28.57%). Furthermore, 25.93% of H. shimoga showed positive results that matched Haemaphysalis longicornis symbionts (92% sequence identity) and the Coxeilla burnetti 16S ribosomal RNA gene (90% sequence identity). We propose that this is a novel H. shimoga symbiont bacterium in Thailand and might be a novel Coxeilla-like agent or Coxeilla sp. found in H. shimoga. In contrast, we did not observe any Wolbachia bacteria, which also belong to the order Rickettsiales, in the same group of Haemaphysalis ticks. Furthermore, PCR was used to detect three other genera of bacteria, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia, none of which were identified in the Haemaphysalis ticks studied.
Recent advances on the lipase-catalyzed production of these partial acylglycerols in alternative reaction media and systems are also reviewed.”
“Adult intussusception is an uncommon entity. Surgical resection is required because of the high PD98059 incidence of pathological lead point. We report a case of sigmoidorectal intussusception caused by a large tubulovillous adenoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy.”
“Oxindoles and spirooxindoles are important synthetic targets due to their biological activity and applications to pharmaceutical
lead discovery. The spirooxindole structure is commonly found in a variety of complex alkaloids and many compounds that possess a spirooxindole moiety exhibit significant biological activity. Herein, we have proposed an easy and efficient access to spirooxindole from an isatin derivative, an aldehyde and a pipecolic ester to get such compounds efficiently and conveniently.”
“Objectives: P-selectin binding AZD1480 molecular weight to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL)-1 mediates leukocyte
rolling under conditions of inflammation and injury. The aims of this study were to develop an efficient, high temporal resolution model for direct simulation of leukocyte rolling and conduct a study of load-bearing bonds using the model. Materials and Methods: A stochastic -calculus-driven event-tracking model of adhesion (ETMA) was developed and compared with experimental data. Multiple simulations for each case were conducted to obtain high-confidence numerical characteristics of leukocyte rolling. Results: Leukocyte rolling and the underlying P-selectinPSGL-1 bonds were studied under low wall shear rate (25-50 s-1) conditions from measured parameters of leukocyte rolling and bond properties. For the first time, the location, number, lifetime, history, and kinetics of load-bearing bonds and their influence on cell rolling were identified and instantaneous cell displacements, translational and rotational velocities, and cell-substrate
distances derived. The model explains the commonly observed stop-start type rolling behavior and reveals that a few load-bearing bonds are sufficient to support rolling, while a large number of bonds dissociate before becoming load bearing. Conclusions: ETMA provides a method for more precise, direct simulation of leukocyte rolling BAY 73-4506 datasheet at low wall shear rates and sets a foundation upon which further refinements can be introduced.”
“Background Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors represent a new class of promising drugs in anticancer therapy.\n\nAims To evaluate PARP expression in testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs) and to correlate expression patterns with clinicopathological variables.\n\nMethods In this translational study, tumour specimens from 124 patients with GCTs (114 patients with testicular primary tumours and 10 with extragonadal GCTs) were identified.
Methods: We compared cortisol responses to tetracosactide (250 mu g) between NCCAH patients and a comparison group
(CG) of patients with premature pubarche and normal tetracosactide test. An adequate cortisol response was defined as a peak bigger than = 18 mu g/dl. Results: We included 35 NCCAH patients (26 girls, 9 boys), whose mean age at testing was 7.0 years (0.8-15.6), click here and 47 patients in the CG (39 girls, 8 boys), whose mean age was 7.2 years (0.5-9.9). Baseline cortisol was significantly higher in the NCCAH group than in the CG [12.9 (4.3-22.2) vs. 9.7 (4.2-16.2) mu g/dl, respectively; p = 0.0006]. NCCAH patients had lower cortisol peak response compared to the CG [18.2 (6.3-40) vs. 24.9 (12-30.3) mu g/dl, respectively; p smaller than 0.0001]. Peak cortisol was smaller than 18 mu g/dl in 21/35 (60%) NCCAH patients versus 1/47 (2.1%) in the CG. No NCCAH patients had acute adrenal insufficiency, but 2 reported severe fatigue that improved with hydrocortisone. Conclusions: The cortisol response to tetracosactide was inadequate ( smaller than 18 mu g/dl) in 60% of patients with NCCAH. Hydrocortisone therapy may deserve consideration when major stress (surgery, trauma, childbirth) or objectively documented fatigue occurs
in NCCAH patients with inadequate cortisol response. (C) 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Interpersonal curiosity (IPC) is an important intrinsic motivation in social interaction, yet studies focused on its neural mechanism are rare. In a three-agent (Self, Other, or Computer) interactive gambling task, we recorded event-related BEZ235 concentration potentials (ERPs) to a cue stimuli indicating whether participants will be informed of their own, of another participant’s or the computer’s outcomes such that curiosity will be satisfied (CWS) or curiosity will not be satisfied (CWN). The results showed that relative to the CWS cue stimuli the CWN cue evoked a larger late positive component (LPC) between
approximately 400 ms and 700 ms after cue onset in both the Self and Other conditions, but not in the Computer condition. LY2835219 in vivo Additionally, participants reported stronger curiosity in the Other’s outcomes than in the Computer’s outcomes. Most importantly, participants’ subjective rating of curiosity was significantly correlated with the amplitude of the LPC elicited by the CWN cue. Furthermore, scores in the “curiosity about emotion” subscale of the IPC Scale was significantly correlated with the LPC amplitude when the participants learn they will not be informed of the Other’s outcomes. We suggest that (1) interpersonal information is of great significance to individuals and IPC is an important social motivator, and (2) LPC amplitude is sensitive to IPC. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Furthermore, HCC827 cells underwent apoptosis following depletion of JAG1 but not JAG2, whereas co-culture experiments revealed that depletion of JAG2, but not JAG1, enhanced the ability of HCC827 cells to chemoattract THP-1 human monocytes. JAG2-depleted HCC827 cells expressed high levels of
inflammation-related genes, including interleukin 1 (IL1) and a broad range of IL1-regulated cytokines, which was attenuated by inhibition of IL1 receptor (IL1R). Our findings suggest that JAG1 and JAG2 have distinct biological roles including a previously undiscovered role Z-DEVD-FMK order for JAG2 in regulating the expression of cytokines that can promote antitumor immunity.”
“Cell-based Selleckchem Ricolinostat therapy is a possible avenue for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked skeletal muscle-wasting disease. We have demonstrated that cultured myogenic progenitors derived from the adult skeletal muscle side population can engraft into dystrophic fibers of non-irradiated, non-chemically injured mouse
models of DMD (mdx(5CV)) after intravenous and intraarterial transplantation, with engraftment rates approaching 10%. In an effort to elucidate the cell-surface markers that promote progenitor cell extravasation and engraftment after systemic transplantation, we found that expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, whose ligand SDF-1 is overexpressed in dystrophic muscle, enhances the extravasation of these cultured progenitor cells into skeletal muscle after intraarterial transplantation. AG-120 solubility dmso At 1 day post-transplantation, mice that received CXCR4-positive enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-positive cultured cells derived from the skeletal muscle side population displayed significantly
higher amounts of eGFP-positive mononuclear cells in quadriceps and tibialis anterior than mice that received CXCR4-negative eGFP-positive cells derived from the same cultured population. At 30 days posttransplantation, significantly higher engraftment rates of donor cells were observed in mice that received CXCR4-positive cells compared with mice transplanted with CXCR4-negative fractions. Our data suggest that CXCR4 expression by muscle progenitor cells increases their extravasation into skeletal muscle shortly after transplantation. Furthermore, this enhanced extravasation likely promotes higher donor cell engraftment rates over time. Muscle Nerve 40: 562-572, 2009″
“Background: The WHO Executive Board revised the guidance that governs the procedures for the WHO review of psychoactive substances for international drug control in 2010. To meet the standards defined in these guidelines, the current evaluation methodology at WHO must be an evidence-based assessment.
\n\nResults: Significant differences between the jugular CSAs mTOR inhibitor before and after head rotation were observed only in the MS patients for the IJVs with wall collapse (F[6,1215] = 6414.57, p < 0.001), showing on longitudinal scans
a typical “hourglass” aspect that we defined as “miopragic”. No significant difference was found in the distribution of these miopragic veins with regard to MS duration. There was a strong association between the CCSVI scores and the complexity of jugular morphological types (chi(2) [9, N = 313] = 75.183, p < 0.001). Wall miopragia was mainly observed in MS patients with SP (59.3%) and PP (70.0%) clinical forms, compared to RR (48.3%) forms (p = 0.015).\n\nConclusion: A dynamic ECD approach allowed us to detect IJVs with a significant increase in their CSAs during head rotation, but only in MS subjects. This feature, most likely the expression of congenital wall miopragia, could be secondary to dysregulation of collagen synthesis, but further histochemical studies will be needed to confirm this hypothesis.”
“In this paper, calcium molybdate (CaMoO4) crystals (meso- and nanoscale) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method using different solvent volume ratios (water/ethylene
glycol). Subsequently, the obtained suspensions were processed in microwave-assisted hydrothermal/solvothermal systems at 140 degrees C for 1 h. These meso- and nanocrystals processed were characterized by X-ray diffraction (X R I)), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption GW4869 solubility dmso spectroscopies, held-emission
gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). transmission electron microscopy (TEM). and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. X RI) patterns and FT-Raman spectra showed that these meso- and nanocrystals have a scheelite-type tetragonal structure without the presence of deleterious phases. FT-IR spectra exhibited a large absorption band situated at around 827 cm(-1), which is associated with the Mo-O anti-symmetric stretching vibrations into the [MoO4] clusters. FEG-SEM micrographs indicated that the ethylene glycol concentration in the aqueous solution plays Apoptosis Compound Library high throughput an important role in the morphological evolution of CaMoO4 crystals. High-resolution TEM micrographs demonstrated that the mesocrystals consist of several aggregated nanoparticles with electron diffraction patterns of monocrystal. In addition, the differences observed in the selected area electron diffraction patterns of CaMoO4 crystals proved the coexistence of both nano- and mesostructures, First-principles quantum mechanical calculations based on the density functional theory at the B3LYP level were employed in order to understand the band structure find density of states For the CaMoO4.
\n\nCompared to sham-operated animals, IL-2 content was increased 13-fold GSK461364 (P < 0.01) 24 h post MI and
16-fold (P < 0.01) 6 days post MI in the infarction area as well as 2-fold (P < 0.05) 6 days post MI in the non-infarction area. Despite similar infarct sizes, LV function and remodeling were ameliorated in IL-2 fusion protein-treated ischemic rats, indicated by improved LV pressure (LVP), contractility (LVdP/dt(max)) and relaxation (LVdP/dt(min)) at all three time points. LV collagen content as a surrogate parameter for remodeling and IL-1 beta expression as a marker for myocardial inflammation were reduced in the non-infarcted LV, but not in the LV infarction area compared to vehicle-treated controls.\n\nLV contractile dysfunction after experimental MI is improved after treatment LY2835219 supplier with an IL-2-IgG2b fusion protein. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This paper describes the biomechanics of an unusual form of wing stridulation in katydids, termed here ‘reverse stridulation’. Male crickets and katydids produced sound to attract
females by rubbing their fore-wings together. One of the wings bears a vein ventrally modified with teeth (a file), while the other harbours a scraper on its anal edge. The wings open and close in rhythmic cycles, but sound is usually produced during the closing phase as the scraper moves along the file. Scraper-tooth strikes create vibrations that are subsequently amplified by
wing cells specialised in sound radiation. The sound produced is either resonant (pure tone) or non-resonant (broadband); these two forms vary across species, but resonant requires complex wing mechanics. Using a sensitive optical diode and high-speed video to examine wing motion, and Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) to study wing resonances, I describe the mechanics of stridulation used by males of the neotropical katydid Ischnomela gracilis (Pseudophyllinae). Males sing with a pure tone at ca.15 kHz and, in contrast to most Ensifera using wing stridulation, produce sound during the opening phase CDK inhibitor of the wings. The stridulatory file exhibits evident adaptations for such reverse scraper motion. LDV recordings show that the wing cells resonate sharply at ca. 15 kHz. Recordings of wing motion suggest that during the opening phase, the scraper strikes nearly 15,000 teeth/s. Therefore, the song of this species is produced by resonance. The implications of such adaptations (reverse motion, file morphology, and wing resonance) are discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycholinguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus.