Cellular expression of FoxP3 was evident in 71% of benign and 91

Cellular expression of FoxP3 was evident in 71% of benign and 91.9% of malignant tissues. The nuclear

and cytoplasmic expression patterns were quantified separately. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that cytoplasmic FoxP3 expression is an independent risk factor for thyroid malignancy. Cytoplasmic FoxP3 staining was inversely correlated with patient age. Nuclear FoxP3 staining was more intense in younger patients and in tumors presenting with metastasis at diagnosis. FoxP3+ lymphocytes were more frequent in tumors smaller than 2 cm, those without extrathyroidal invasion, and in patients with concurrent chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated FoxP3 expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells and found evidence that this expression may exert an important

influence on several features of tumor aggressiveness.”
“Objective: check details To describe the clinical course, diagnostic features and management of a case of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome after a lateral cranial base removal.

Patient: A 58-year-old male patient with an inconspicuous clinical history presented with a lethargic state without localized neurologic deficit in the postoperative period of a subtotal petrosectomy for an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the temporal bone.

Interventions: Cranial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed increased signal intensity in the occipital and cerebellar regions, centered at the cortical and subcortical white matter. Antihypertensive drugs, anticonvulsants, www.selleckchem.com/products/sch772984.html and antibiotics were administered. A complete resolution of the symptoms and radiologic findings were achieved within 1 to 2 weeks.

Results: The clinical presentation, radiologic findings, and

resolution of the clinical setting are consistent with a diagnosis of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy S63845 in vivo syndrome.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome after a lateral cranial base surgery.”
“Objectives: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic event that affects many facets of the injured people’s lives. One aspect is sexual functioning. The purpose of this study is to identify the sexual problems of women with SCI and determine their level of knowledge about sexuality.

Methods: Twenty-six women with SCI for longer than 6 months were evaluated. Demographic information, sexual experiences were surveyed. Patients were also asked if and how they received sexual health consultation after SCI. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and Beck Depression Inventory were evaluated.

Results: In this study, average age of the women with SCI was 32.96 +/- 8.23 years (22-50 years). Eight patients had regular sexual intercourse while one married woman did not have any sexual relationship after SCI. Twenty-four of the patients in the study received no information about pregnancy or sexual health after SCI.

Future research should focus on the biomechanical factors associa

Future research should focus on the biomechanical factors associated with agility-related injuries.”
“We investigate size dependent strengthening mechanisms in sputtered Fe/W multilayers with individual layer thickness, h, varying from 1 to 200 nm. Microstructure analyses reveal that Fe/W has incoherent bcc/bcc interface when h is greater than 5 nm. When h decreases to 1-2.5 nm, the interface becomes semicoherent, and Fe and W show significant lattice distortions comparing to their bulk counterpart due to interface constraint. The layer thickness dependent drastic variations in x-ray diffraction profiles

are simulated well by using an analytical model. Film hardness BMS-777607 increases with decreasing h, and approaches a maximum value of 12.5 GPa when h is 1 nm. The layer thickness dependent film hardnesses are compared with

analytical models. Koehler’s image force plays a major role in determining the maximum strength of composites at smaller h. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3400130]“
“It is now widely accepted that a gross change in the maternal diet during pregnancy results in offspring with raised blood pressure. More recently, results from human intervention studies and a range of animal experiments have questioned this concept. It thus appears that, when blood pressure is measured see more directly or by telemetry, the extent to which blood pressure is raised is largely dependent on the magnitude of the postnatal catch-up growth. In addition, such effects can be lost when appropriate corrections are made

for current body weight. Consequently, offspring born to nutritionally manipulated mothers can actually have a lower blood pressure than control group offspring. At the same time, studies of the offspring born to contemporary women in developed countries show very little, if any, effect of changes in maternal diet on blood pressure in the offspring when assessed during childhood. In small animal studies, at ACP-196 chemical structure least, the cardiovascular outcomes linked to small size at birth can differ between the sexes, which may be related in part to differences in kidney function between males and females. With respect to large animal studies, significant effects on blood pressure are less apparent and may relate to the much slower onset of hypertension. The challenge is to use our increased knowledge of the critical windows in early development to optimize later health. One clear priority is the prevention of excess adiposity and to determine how epigenetic mechanisms may provide novel strategies in this regard. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(suppl): 1518S-22S.”
“Landfill leachates are generated from municipal solid waste landfills under the action of water percolating through the landfilled waste.

In a second part, using the case of silicon in the telecom freque

In a second part, using the case of silicon in the telecom frequency range, we demonstrate that absolute photonic and phononic gaps may be obtained by making a combination of two crystals having slightly different filling factors. The calculations

of the band structures and transmission coefficients were mainly computed using the finite difference time domain method. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3530682]“
“Due to the large number of putative microRNA gene targets predicted by sequence-alignment databases and the relative low accuracy of such predictions which are conducted independently of biological context by design, systematic experimental identification and validation of every functional Elacridar microRNA target is currently challenging. Consequently, biological studies have yet to identify, on a genome scale, key regulatory networks perturbed EGFR inhibitor by altered microRNA functions in the context of cancer. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time how phenotypic knowledge of inheritable cancer traits and of risk factor loci can be utilized jointly with gene expression analysis to efficiently prioritize deregulated

microRNAs for biological characterization. Using this approach we characterize miR-204 as a tumor suppressor microRNA and uncover previously unknown connections between microRNA regulation, network topology, and expression dynamics. Specifically, we validate 18 gene targets of miR-204 Oligomycin A purchase that show elevated mRNA expression and are enriched in biological processes associated with tumor progression in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). We further demonstrate the enrichment of bottleneckness, a key molecular network topology,

among miR-204 gene targets. Restoration of miR-204 function in HNSCC cell lines inhibits the expression of its functionally related gene targets, leads to the reduced adhesion, migration and invasion in vitro and attenuates experimental lung metastasis in vivo. As importantly, our investigation also provides experimental evidence linking the function of microRNAs that are located in the cancer-associated genomic regions (CAGRs) to the observed predisposition to human cancers. Specifically, we show miR-204 may serve as a tumor suppressor gene at the 9q21.1-22.3 CAGR locus, a well established risk factor locus in head and neck cancers for which tumor suppressor genes have not been identified. This new strategy that integrates expression profiling, genetics and novel computational biology approaches provides for improved efficiency in characterization and modeling of microRNA functions in cancer as compared to the state of art and is applicable to the investigation of microRNA functions in other biological processes and diseases.

Conclusion We assume that the combination of the patient’s SCT s

Conclusion. We assume that the combination of the patient’s SCT status and the physiologic stress of surgery likely explain this patient’s spinal ischemia.”
“There is considerable interest in the study of free radical-mediated damage to biological systems due to pesticide exposure. However,

there is a lack of consensus as to which determinations are best used to quantify future risks arising from xenobiotic exposure and natural antioxidant interventions. Our study investigated the potential ability of selenium and/or vitamin E, used as nutritional supplements, to alleviate cardiotoxicity induced by dimethoate. Female Wistar rats were exposed for 30 days either to dimethoate (0.2 g L-1 of drinking water), click here dimethoate+selenium (0.5 mg kg(-1) of diet), dimethoate+vitamin E (100 mg kg(-1) of diet), or dimethoate+selenium+vitamin E. The exposure of rats to dimethoate promoted oxidative stress with a rise in malondialdehyde, advanced protein oxidation, and protein carbonyl levels. An increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities was also noted. A fall in acetylcholinesterase and Na+K+-ATPase activities, glutathione, nonprotein thiols, vitamins C and E levels was observed. Plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased and those of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased. Coadministration of selenium

or vitamin E to the diet of dimethoate-treated rats ameliorated the biochemical parameters cited above. The histopathological findings confirmed the biochemical results and https://www.sellecn.cn/products/BKM-120.html the potential SB202190 concentration protective effects of selenium and vitamin E against cardiotoxicity induced by dimethoate. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 28:630-643, 2013.”
“Study Design. A case report and clinical


Objective. To describe an unique case of purulent discitis at C3-C4 and an anterior C1-C4 epidural abscess secondary to oxygen-ozone therapy for the herniated cervical discs.

Summary of Background Data. Previously reported complications secondary to ozone therapy are rarely documented. No cases of pyogenic discitis with associated epidural abscess after oxygen-ozone therapy have been reported to date. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in literature.

Methods. A 57-year-old female patient with nuchal stiffness was previously treated with ozone therapy at the discs of C3-C4, C4-C5, and C6-C7. Five days later, she presented with an attack of neck pain and fever followed by progressive quadriplegia with sudden onset of dyspnea and was referred to our hospital. On admission, physical examination revealed a temperature of 38.8 degrees C, evident neck tenderness, marked global weakness (grade 1-2/5 MRC) in bilateral upper-limb, and a modest global weakness in bilateral lower-limb (grade 4/5 MRC). Laboratory findings showed a significantly elevated WCC, ESR, and CRP. Blood culture was negative.

The other diluents presented higher conversion when associated wi

The other diluents presented higher conversion when associated with BisEMA. EGDMA showed similar shrinkage compared ABT-737 with DEGDMA and higher

than the other diluents. The lower conversion achieved by TMPTMA did not jeopardize its elastic modulus, similar to the other diluents. Despite the similar conversion presented by D3MA in comparison with EGDMA and DEGDMA, its lower elastic modulus may limit its use. Rather than proposing new materials, this study provides a systematic evaluation of off the shelf monomers and their effects on stress development, as highlighted by the analysis of conversion, shrinkage and modulus, to aid the optimization of commercially available materials. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Some studies have found that donor-recipient gender mismatch predicts posttransplant outcomes but whether this is independent of donor quality is unknown. To evaluate the association between gender mismatch and graft loss, 11 508 females (F) and 16 714 males (M) who underwent liver transplant from March 1, 2002 to December 31, 2007 were studied. Of 11 donor characteristics,

clinically relevant differences between F and M donors were median age (47 vs. 39 years), height (165 vs. 178 cm) and proportion dying of stroke (59 vs. 35%) (p < 0.001 for all). The donor risk index was significantly lower for F than M donors (1.3 vs. 1.6, p < 0.001). Recipients of gender-mismatched grafts had an 11% higher risk of graft see more loss (p < 0.001). Compared to M -> M donor-recipient-matched transplants in univariable analysis, F -> M mismatch was associated with a 17% increased risk of graft www.sellecn.cn/products/ly2835219.html loss (95% CI = 1.11-1.24, p < 0.001), whereas M -> F mismatch was not (HR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.96-1.09; p = 0.46). However, adjustment for significant recipient and donor factors eliminated the association between F -> M mismatch and graft

loss (HR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.89-1.02; p = 0.18). In conclusion, donor quality differs significantly between female and male donors-female donors are older, shorter and die more frequently of stroke-and gender differences in donor quality, rather than gender mismatch are predictive of graft loss.”
“Objective: The aim of this study was to ascertain if there are differences in the development and linear growth between a group of diabetic children who had been receiving insulin pigment and healthy children.

Methods: A total of 57 Chinese children with type 1 diabetes diagnosed at the age from 6 to 10 years old (26 boys and 31 girls) were included in the study. Their height and weight and development conditions were recorded until they reached their 18th birthday.

Results: Diabetic children were taller than healthy children at the onset of diabetes, even though there was no significant difference between them [male height standard deviation score (SDS): 0.34 +/- 0.93, female height SDS: 0.38 +/- 0.50].

Interleukin 6 (IL-6), such as present during

Interleukin 6 (IL-6), such as present during AZD8186 orthodontic tooth movement, also strongly affects bone mass, but little is known about the effect of IL-6 on osteocyte function. Therefore we aimed to determine in vitro

whether IL-6 affects osteocyte mechanosensitivity, and osteocyte regulation of osteoclastogenesis and osteoblast differentiation. MLO-Y4 osteocytes were incubated with/without IL-6 (1 or 10 pg/mL) for 24 hr. Subsequently, osteocytes were subjected to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) for 1 hr. Mouse osteoclast precursors were cultured for 7 days on top of IL-6-treated osteocytes. Conditioned medium from osteocytes treated with/without IL-6 was added to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts for 14 days. Exogenous IL-6 (10 pg/mL) did not alter the osteocyte response to PFF. PFF significantly enhanced IL-6

production by osteocytes. IL-6 enhanced Rankl expression but reduced caspase 3/7 activity by osteocytes, and therefore did not affect osteocyte-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Conditioned medium from IL-6-treated osteocytes reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Runx2 expression in osteoblasts, but increased expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 and osteocalcin. Our results suggest that IL-6 is produced by shear-loaded osteocytes and that IL-6 may affect bone mass by modulating osteocyte communication toward osteoblasts.”
“We describe a case with a focal atrial tachycardia (AT) masquerading as perimitral atrial flutter revealed after circumferential pulmonary vein antral isolation for atrial fibrillation. It was successfully terminated and became noninducible selleck chemicals llc by a point ablation on the left atrial anterior wall (LAAW) near the mitral annulus in contact with the aortic root and on the left superior pulmonary vein-left atrial appendage ridge, without this website any linear ablation, using electroanatomical mapping and conventional precise mapping with a maximum amplified gain within the low-voltage area. The AT revealed in our case was an LAAW-aorta contiguity

area-related AT.”
“The antioxidant status of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) was investigated in plasma, erythrocytes, and platelets of juvenile patients with anorexia nervosa. Blood for analysis of the CoQ10 status was taken from 16 juvenile patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (restricting form) at the time point of admission to the hospital and at discharge after about 12 weeks. Plasma and blood cells isolated by a density gradient were stored at -84 degrees C until analysis. CoQ10 concentration and redox status were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and internal standardization. The improvement of physical health during the hospital refeeding process was followed up by the body mass index (BMI). The antioxidant status of plasma CoQ10 in juvenile patients suffering from anorexia nervosa indicated no abnormalities in comparison to healthy controls.

We found that older adults had smaller cerebellar volume than you

We found that older adults had smaller cerebellar volume than young adults; specifically, lobules in the anterior cerebellum were more impacted by age. Multiple regression analyses for both age groups revealed associations between sensorimotor task performance in several domains (balance, MAPK inhibitor choice reaction time, and timing) and regional cerebellar volume. There were also relationships

with working memory, but none with measures of general cognitive or executive function. Follow-up analyses revealed several differential relationships with age between regional volume and sensorimotor performance. These relationships were predominantly selective to cerebellar regions that have been implicated in cognitive functions. Therefore, it may be the cognitive aspects

of sensorimotor task performance that are best explained by individual differences in regional cerebellar volumes. In sum, our results demonstrate the importance OICR-9429 price of regional cerebellar volume with respect to both sensorimotor and cognitive performance, and we provide additional insight into the role of the cerebellum in age-related performance declines.”
“ObjectiveOral lichen planus (OLP) is a common inflammatory disorder with a higher prevalence among women than men. The pathogenesis of OLP is still unclear, and its heredity is not well characterized. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) indicates its importance in human ethnic group classification as well disease susceptibility. So, this study was conducted to find whether mtDNA haplogroup associates with OLP susceptibility in Chinese, and determine the influence of C-stretch structure of mtDNA on OLP susceptibility.

Subjects and methodsWe sequenced three hypervariable regions of mtDNA from 242 patients with OLP and 237 healthy controls. The

association between mtDNA haplogroups and OLP is tested by chi-square test.

ResultsSeventeen kinds of haplogroups were identified, and the frequency of haplogroup B4 was significantly higher in control group than that of the OLP group (P=0.013, OR=0.429). In female samples, B4 declared even more significance (P=0.003, OR=0.296). Meanwhile, the haplotypes of C-stretch in mtDNA did not have any significant difference between case-control groups.

ConclusionsMitochondrial DZNeP mw DNA haplogroup B4 might have a protective effect to OLP, and its protective effect resides predominantly in women. However, the association between C-stretch haplotype and OLP susceptibility still needs more patients for evaluation.”
“Our previous studies found that patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) had a higher incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in serum than patients with T-cell NHL or other cancers. We sought to identify a possible role of HBV infection in B-cell NHL tumorigenesis and to understand its underlying clinical relevance.

Clinical and radiographic history was recorded Patients with nec

Clinical and radiographic history was recorded. Patients with neck pain had relieved significantly after surgery and the neurologic status was also improved greatly. Thirty-three (94.3%) patients gained bony fusion at 3 months postoperatively. No vertebral artery and spinal cord injuries were noted. There was

no instrumentation failure during the observation period.

We conclude that the C1-2 SRF with construct-compression structural bone grafting can be used for C1-2 fusion with relatively simple performance and less time-consuming in selected cases.”
“The exploitation of the singular properties of nanoparticles (NPs) and the well-known characteristics of flow methodologies have led to the development of innovative analytical approaches and applications, opening a new, challenging Vorinostat chemical structure scenario. The employment of NPs GW4064 cell line as sorbents in continuous preconcentration systems has become one of the most important applications of NPs and constitutes an excellent example of this powerful combination.

This article overviews issues with respect to on-line procedures and NPs as sorbents, namely, the nature of NPs, the immobilization mode, the location of the preconcentration unit in the flow manifold, and applications to a wide variety of

samples. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“One case had a symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis coupled with a coincidental EPZ5676 mw unruptured cerebral aneurysm at the same arterial anatomic segment. And another

case had an asymptomatic vertebral artery stenosis coupled with a ruptured cerebral aneurysm at the same arterial anatomic segment. They underwent intracranial stenting. Both lesions were treated successfully and neither complications nor strokes occurred after the procedures. Covered stent placement in an intracranial stenosis with an adjacent ruptured or unruptured aneurysm may be a feasible method.”
“The aim of the present study was to measure free thiols content, Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities in human spermatozoa of asthenozoospermic patients and normospermic donors, and evaluate any influence on kinetic sperm features, as well as correlation with peroxynitrite. In fact, membrane integrity and its composition are the basic characteristics of the sperm membrane thus, it is evident that its composition is an important factor for membrane functions that can be modified upon oxidation. A total of 70 infertile patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospermia and 25 normal fertile donors were enrolled. Control spermatozoa exhibited Na+/K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase activities, cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and free-SH content significantly higher than those of asthenozoospermic patients (P < 0.0001).

5, and its peak position was also significantly shifted to room t

5, and its peak position was also significantly shifted to room temperature, demonstrating that XNBR/AO-2246 composite is a promising damping material. Nevertheless, application Of Such XNBR/AO-2246 composite is limited due Selleck HDAC inhibitor to its relatively low E’ value above glass transition temperature. Therefore, to develop a high-performance damping

material with high tan delta peak and high modulus as well as controllable tan delta peak position, the combination of organic hybridization and fiber reinforcement were adopted. DMA analysis of various ternary XNBR/AO-2246/SCF systems revealed that by introduction of SCF, the E’ value of XNBR/AO-2246 was increased remarkably while the tan delta peak maximum was still higher than 2.5. Thus, a new type of XNBR-based high-performance damping material was developed. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 2655-2661, 2009″
“Twenty-five kinds of plant extract used as natural dyeing agents were tested for their reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities using several assay systems. Among plant extracts examined

in this study the hot water extracts from logwood, wattle, pomegranate, dragon’s blood, and quebracho showed relatively strong antioxidant activity. In particular, the pigments extracted from pomegranate and wattle effectively suppressed intracellular generation of ROS induced by hydrogen peroxide in mouse hepatoma hepa1c1c7 cells as well as showed a strong oxygen radical scavenging activity in in vitro assay systems, suggesting their potential usefulness as health functional food ingredients buy PF-562271 and natural

food colorants.”
“Congenital syphilis is a rare, serious disease that continues to be a major health-care problem. The infected neonate may be asymptomatic or multiple-organ system involvement may occur. Anemia VX-680 concentration and thrombocytopenia are common hematological findings. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a clinicopathological condition characterized by activation and uncontrolled nonmalignant proliferation of T lymphocytes and macrophages. The authors report an infant with congenital syphilis as a very rare cause of hemophagocytic syndrome. The reason for anemia and thrombocytopenia in congenital syphilis is not clear. The authors suggest that hemophagocytosis may play role in pathogenesis of cytopenia, particularly thrombocytopenia in patients with congenital syphilis.”
“The laser ablation characteristics of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have been investigated as a function of the target microstructure and dopant level for different nanosecond- [ArF, KrF, and XeCl excimers; Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) (fourth harmonic)] and femtosecond-laser sources [Ti:sapphire (fundamental and third harmonic)]. Particle ejection, which compromises the quality of coatings prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), was analyzed in detail.

At postoperative follow-up, 4 patients (31%) had developed either

At postoperative follow-up, 4 patients (31%) had developed either left- or right-ventricular outflow tract (VOT) obstruction requiring surgical and/or catheter intervention. There was no early mortality, but there was 1 late mortality caused by left-ventricle dysfunction. DORV-TB is often associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies. In general, total repair is feasible in the majority of patients with

satisfactory results and improved outcome. Residual lesion and development of VOT obstruction can occur, requiring close follow-up and intervention for residual lesion.”
“A Bevacizumab is a recombinant, humanized vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody that inhibits tumor growth Bromosporine and tumor metastases. VEGF stimulates angiogenesis in tumors, is involved in early metastatic processes, and is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

The addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy significantly delayed disease progression in two large, randomized, phase III trials in chemotherapy-naive patients

with advanced, nonsquamous NSCLC. In the open-label E4599 trial, median overall survival duration was significantly extended by 2 months and median progression-free survival was significantly increased by 1.7 months when intravenous bevacizumab 15mg/kg once every 3 weeks was added to first-line carboplatin/paclitaxel Nec-1s cost therapy compared with carboplatin/paclitaxel alone.

In the double-blind AVAiL trial, median progression-free survival was significantly increased (by 0.6 and 0.4 months) by the addition of intravenous bevacizumab 7.5 or 15 mg/kg once every 3 weeks to first-line cisplatin/gemcitabine therapy compared with placebo plus cisplatin/gemcitabine. However, median overall survival duration was not significantly improved (13.6 and 13.4 months vs 13.1 months).

Response rates in the E4599 and AVAiL trials were

30-35% in patients receiving bevacizumab plus platinum-based chemotherapy compared with 15% and 20% without bevacizumab.

The safety and tolerability profile of bevacizumb-containing treatment regimens in patients with advanced NSCLC was generally manageable in the E4599 and AVAiL trials, and in two large, ongoing, trials (the open-label SAiL and the observational JNJ-64619178 nmr ARIES studies).”
“Purpose: To develop diclofenac sodium gel using high molecular weight hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934P for topical and systemic delivery.

Methods: Diclofenac sodium gel was prepared with HPMC K100M and Carbopol 934P as gelling agents. The formulations were examined for pH, spreadability, consistency, viscosity, homogeneity, drug content and stability. In vitro drug release was evaluated using Franz diffusion cell. Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model was used for the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of the gels. A commercial diclofenac sodium gel product was used as the reference drug.