The greater reduction in DH was seen in Recaldent? group followed

The greater reduction in DH was seen in Recaldent? group followed by 30% Indian propolis group. The difference in placebo group was not significant [Table 3 and Figure 3]. Table 3 Comparison of mean difference between different treatment groups for probing stimulus Figure 3 Mean difference between different selleck screening library treatment groups for probing stimulus There was a significant reduction in DH for all the treatment groups after each application for air blast. While for probing stimulus, a significant reduction was observed in both Recaldent? group and 30% Indian propolis group [Table 4]. Table 4 Differences in mean ranks in different groups at baseline and after each application for both air blast and probing stimulus Safety evaluation No burning sensation or irritation of mucosa was recorded during application of different test groups.

No adverse reactions occurred during the trial. Similarly, no any other adverse reactions (AE) were recorded during the investigation period. DISCUSSION DH is a very common painful sensation, which is rather difficult to treat in spite of the availability of various treatment options.[3,25] Applying a desensitizing agent is therefore, consistent with these types of DH treatment. Furthermore, Addy’s suggestion that coating dentinal tubules is effective in over 95% of cases,[1] coincides with the results of our study. Valid comparison could not be made with other studies since the present study was the pioneering randomized, double-blind, negative controlled clinical trial that compared the efficacy of 30% ethenolic extract of Indian propolis with CPP-ACP containing desensitizing agent, i.

e., Recaldent? in the treatment of DH. Nevertheless, a sincere attempt has been carried out to compare the present study results with similar studies. The present study had enough statistical power (80%). Which justified the sample size (a total of 74 teeth) and addresses the aims of the study? Distribution of DH according to severity observed in our study is consistent with Kielbassa’s observation that moderate DH is more prevalent than severe or mild varieties.[26] A mean age of 37 years in the study sample coincides with data reported by Cummins indicating that DH affects primarily adults aged 20-50, with a prevalence of 15-20%.[27] It is generally recommended that more than one stimulus should be used in clinical studies of DH.

This would enhance the measurement of sensitivity.[28] The measurement of hypersensitivity has been primarily evaluated by tactile (probing), air blast from the Brefeldin_A dental unit air syringe, and thermal stimulus. The stimuli used in our study to evaluate the DH were air blast and probing (where an explorer is passed over the sensitive lesion) stimulus. Ide, Walters, Tarbet and Sowinski et al. and have reported air blast and tactile (probing) stimulus to be the accurate methods for the examination of hypersensitivity levels.

Furthermore, the effects of these variables on degree of conversi

Furthermore, the effects of these variables on degree of conversion in composite resins still need to be determined. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of some variables on the degree of conversion. Six different composite materials (Filtek Z 250, Filtek P60, Spectrum TPH, Pertact II, Clearfil AP-X, and Clearfil Photo Posterior) were illuminated with three different light sources (blue light-emitting diode [LED], plasma arc curing [PAC], conventional halogen lamp [QTH]), and the DCs obtained from these curing procedures were compared using FTIR. The null hypothesis tested was that both light sources and composite resins would affect the degree of conversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, six commercially available light-cured resin composites were used.

The list of composites, types, shades, and manufacturers are given in Table 1. Table 1 Materials evaluated and their specifications. Three different light sources were used and evaluated with the above-mentioned composites (Table 2). The outputs of the light tips of the QTH (Hilux) and LED (Elipar Freelight) curing units were measured by a digital curing radiometer (Demetron, Danbury, CT, USA) (Table 2). The output of the PAC (Power PAC) system, which could not be measured by the curing radiometer, was 1200�C1500 mW/cm2 according to the manufacturer��s instructions. Table 2 Light sources used in this study. Composites were placed in a space 5 mm in diameter by 2 mm high within a polytetrafluoroethylene mold. A transparent Mylar strip (0.

07 mm; Du Pont Company, Wilmington, DE, USA) was placed on the top and bottom, and excess material was extruded by squeezing it between two microscope slides. The slides were then removed and the mold placed on a black background. Afterward, the tip of the radiation guide was applied to the Mylar strip on the top of the mold aperture. The samples were then irradiated according to the manufacturers�� instructions as follows: 40 s with QTH, 10 s with PAC, and 40 s with LED from the top of the mold. The light intensity of the curing unit was checked prior to the fabrication of each sample set using the external radiometer. Specimens were stored in lightproof boxes after the polymerization procedure to avoid further exposure to light. Five specimens were prepared for every combination of light source and composite luting material.

The total number of specimens was 180. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) (1600 Series; PerkinElmer, Wellesley, MA, USA) was used to evaluate the conversion degree. Each specimen was pulverized into a fine powder with a mortar and pestle. Fifty micrograms of ground powder was mixed with 5 mg of potassium bromide powder (Carlo-Erba Anacetrapib Reagenti, Milan, Italy), and the absorbance peaks were recorded using the diffuse-reflection mode of FTIR. Spectra were also acquired from the same number of unpolymerized adhesives.

Figure 1 Outline of the clinical trial Figure 2 Method of plaque

Figure 1 Outline of the clinical trial Figure 2 Method of plaque collection Figure 3 Plaque samples were collected using a microbrush (Microbrush International Ltd. Clogherane, Dungarvan Co., Waterford, Ireland) from the tooth surface (a) and STA-9090 tongue surface (b) and then spread on the site strip. The strips were attached to each other … Prior to the trials, patients were informed of the design and limits of the study and instructed accordingly; these instructions included the type, amount, and usage frequency of the mouth rinse. They were also told not to perform any means of mechanical cleaning or to consume any chewing gum or similar products. This was a double-blind study, and the direction and distribution of experimental materials was performed by a secondary clinician.

The tests were conducted based on a 4-day plaque accumulation period.[18] The first group of patients constituting the positive control group were directed to use 20 mL of essential oil-containing Listerine? mouth rinse twice a day for 30 s. Listerine? mouth rinse contains eucaliptol (0.092%), menthol (0.042%), methyl salicylate (0.060%), and thymol (0.064%) as active ingredients. Inactive ingredients include, water, alcohol (26.9%), benzoic acid, poloksamer 407, sodium benzoate, and caramel. The second group was directed to use 10 mL of 0.1% Ondrohexidine? mouth rinse twice a day for 30 s. The active ingredients of this alcohol-free mouth rinse are CHX digluconate (0.1%), potassium chloride (250 ppm), PEG-40 castor oil with hydrogen, and water with sorbitol and xylitol as flavoring.

The third group was directed to use 30 mL of essential oil-containing Mouthwash Concentrate? 3 times a day for 30 s. The active ingredients of this alcohol-free mouth rinse are essential oil, water, menthol, thymol, eugenol, benzyl benzoate, and potassium hydroxide, with thyme and sage for flavor. The final group was designated as the negative control group and was directed to use 30 mL of 1% hydroalcohol solution 3 times a day for 30 s. The last rinse was performed in the evening of day 4. At the end of the test period, saliva, and plaque samples were collected in an identical fashion to the initial samples on the morning of the 5th day. Both sets of samples were analyzed for comparison. A total of 140 samples were tagged and kept in an incubator at 37��C for 96 h.

According to the strip kit manufacturer, the incubation time should be 48 h; however, to avoid the lack of expression of S. mutans colonies, the manufacturer also advised to wait 96 h and re-evaluate the colony counts. Following incubation, S. mutans colony numbers were evaluated on a population density scale from 0 to 3 using the plaque and saliva templates included in Dacomitinib a Dentocult? kit. The number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL) with characteristic morphology was screened and scored between 0 and 3. A score of 0 corresponded to zero CFU/mL (S.

This is in contrast to the standard notion of essentiality, which

This is in contrast to the standard notion of essentiality, which is assigned to a gene or reaction whose single knockout abolishes a phenotype. k-essential links between genes/reactions and better systems-level functions arise from synergistic epistasis between parallel pathways in the network. Complex MCSs found using our method yield many k-essential reactions. To quantify novel k-essential links between reactions and objectives, we compared the numbers of k-essential reactions to the number of 1-essential reactions obtained from a brute-force single knockout analysis of the human metabolic network. Figure Figure44 shows how many reactions were deemed k-essential for each objective, with the numbers of reactions shown to be 1-essential for the objective shown in parentheses next to the metabolite label.

We found that for most objectives we were able to associate many more k-essential reactions with the production of a given metabolite than were able to be found using a single knockout analysis. In many cases, this difference was profound, such as for sphingomyelin, whose producibility we were able to epistatically link to 235 reactions in the metabolic network. Figure 4 Histogram showing number of k-essential reactions discovered for each biosynthetic objective tested in our study. A reaction is k-essential for an objective if it contributes to at least one MCS for that objective. The number of reactions found to be … MCSs span multiple compartments and metabolic subsystems MCSs discovered by our analysis span a breadth of cellular compartments.

However, the actual distributions of compartment span vary distinctly between specific metabolite classes (Fig. (Fig.5).5). In particular, amino acid-targeting MCSs discovered by our method employ the fewest number of compartments, drawing from cytoplasmic fluxes alone or a combination of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactions. MCSs targeting core metabolites span between two and three compartments, consisting of primarily cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactions, however often also employing peroxisomal fluxes. Nucleotide-targeting MCSs sometimes employ cytoplasmic reactions only, however more often pull combinations of reactions from two or three of the following compartments: cytoplasm, mitochondria, lysosome, and nucleus.

Across all metabolite classes studied, membrane-lipid-targeting MCSs are the most diverse: they harness up to five compartment combinations that employ reactions Dacomitinib from the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, nucleus, and peroxisome. Figure 5 Histogram showing number of compartments spanned by MCSs targeting the four metabolite classes. Frequencies are calibrated separately for each metabolite class. There are also metabolite class differences in the subsystem span of discovered MCSs (Fig. (Fig.6).6). Nucleotide and amino acid-targeting MCSs span between one and five subsystems.

The caries prevalence for all children was 30%, increasing from 1

The caries prevalence for all children was 30%, increasing from 13% in the youngest age group to 43% among the 5- to 6-year-olds. selleck chemicals llc Non-cavitated initial lesions (WSL) were recorded in 26% of the children. Eight per cent reported a general disease that could influence caries susceptibility. The vast majority (83%) reported unfavorable dietary habits (3 intakes of sweets per day); this figure was fairly stable in the different age groups. The questionnaire revealed that 62% of the 2- to 3-year-old children were exposed to systemic or topical fluoride; this value increased to 96% among the 5- to 6-year-old children. Less than satisfactory oral hygiene was recorded in 67% of all children and 23% displayed poor oral hygiene. The saliva tests showed that less than 17% had moderate or high counts of mutans streptococci and that 26% displayed impaired buffer capacity.

The calculated caries risk is presented in Table 2. The Cariogram profiles showed that 26%, 65% and 9% of all children were assessed with high, moderate and low caries risk, respectively. To explore which of the Cariogram variables best explained the caries risk levels, multivariate linear regression analysis models were calculated for the total study group (Table 3) and for the different age groups. For the total sample, the most significant risk variables were insufficient fluoride exposure and the presence of white-spot lesions, followed by the previous caries experience. When regression analysis was performed for the different age groups, the most significant variable for the 2- to 3-year-olds was insufficient fluoride exposure (R2=0.

93, ?= 0.31, P<.001). For the 3- to 4-year-olds, the presence of dental plaque (R2=0.91, ?= 0.71, P<.001) was most prominent, while for the 4- to 5- (R2=0.89, ?= 0.163, P<.001) and 5- to 6-year-olds (R2=0.91, ?=0.2, P<.001), the presence of white-spot lesions showed the strongest association. The dmft was found to be a significant caries variable for all age groups. Table 2. Percentage distribution of caries risk as assessed by Cariogram for the total material and for the different age groups (%). Table 3. Multivariate regression analysis of Cariogram variables for all children in relation to caries risk. DISCUSSION The present study was undertaken to gain information about the caries risk profiles of 2-to 6-year-old Greek children.

This information will help in implementing and targeting preventive strategies for this population. The Cariogram is based on the interpretation of data from numerous clinical studies on adults.23 Consequently, the scoring of some of Anacetrapib the present variables was modified to fit this young age group. Two previous studies have used the Cariogram in preschool children,12,13 one of which used modified variables.12 The accounting for age is most likely a key factor explaining the validity of the Cariogram as a predictive tool in caries risk assessment models.