In 2010, most of the reach was heavily infested with non-native P

In 2010, most of the reach was heavily infested with non-native Phragmites ( Fig. 3); native Phragmites is not known to occur within the stretch of river covered for this study and therefore was not considered. Some samples were collected within short river reaches (2–10 km) that are located in bird sanctuaries, such as the Audubon Society’s Rowe Sanctuary. Those sites are heavily managed with bulldozing, plowing, and herbicide application Fasudil molecular weight to eliminate vegetation, particularly Phragmites, within the channel. The discharge of the Platte River varies widely on seasonal and interannual timescales, depending on weather conditions and management decisions. In 2010, flow conditions were “average” for

modern times. Monthly mean flow in July during sample collection was 69 m3 s−1 (U.S. Geological Survey, 2013). Local discharges varied between sampling localities,

depending on whether the river was locally more braided (more channels with lower discharge per channel) or less braided (fewer channels with higher discharge per channel). Sampling sites were all within the active PF-02341066 chemical structure channel, i.e., on islands or bank-attached islands within a major braid of the river and distributed along the 65-km reach in order to average over variable local channel conditions (Fig. 2). Unvegetated sites were necessarily close together because few were available. Each site was at least 15 m2 so that cores could be collected a minimum

of 1 m in from the bank and have a distance of at least 3 m from other Tangeritin cores within the same site. Three ∼30 cm subaerial sediment cores were collected at each site. Most of the cores (31 of 35) were collected from surfaces with elevations of <20 cm above water level in the channel. The goal was to minimize hydrologic differences between sites. However, four cores were collected from surfaces between 20 and 40 cm above water level because of site limitations. Cores were collected in a manner that ensured minimal sediment disruption. Immediately after collection, cores were sectioned at 10 cm intervals and sections were placed into individual specimen cups for transport to the lab. Standard loss-on-ignition techniques (Dean, 1974) were used to determine dry density and weight-percent of organic matter and carbonate of the sediments. To extract ASi, we followed the method of Triplett et al. (2008) to ensure complete dissolution of resistant phytoliths: dried sediments were digested in 0.2 M NaOH at 85 °C, with aliquots removed at 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min. Concentrations of DSi in those solutions were measured as SiO2 on a Cary-50 UV–vis spectrophotometer as molybdate reactive silica, with standards ranging from 0.25 to 10 mg l−1 (Conley and Schelske, 2001, DeMaster, 1981 and Krausse et al., 1983). ANOVA statistical tests were used to evaluate the effect of presence and type of vegetation on ASi concentration.

However, these models may not be applicable to powder systems whi

However, these models may not be applicable to powder systems which have moisture absorption

during storage. In this work, the reaction fitted the first order kinetic model up to the 50th day, and then zero order up to the end of the experiment (90 days). For the prediction of the product shelf life of the obtained values for vitamin C degradation between zero and 50 days were considered; thereafter, the vitamin C degradation was considered negligible in relation to time. First order kinetic behaviour is frequently observed for vitamin degradation, whereas zero order kinetic behaviour is observed when the diffusion Selleck Target Selective Inhibitor Library of certain participants of the reaction is limited ( Taoukis & Labuza, 1996). According to Nagy (1980), after consumption of the free oxygen in the packages, anaerobic reactions become predominant, including that of ascorbic acid degradation, but at a reduced velocity as compared to that occurring under aerobic conditions, which can explain the reduction in the oxidation reaction in the end of storage. Under these conditions, the ascorbic acid decomposes

into 2,5-dihydro-2-furanoic acid, which degrades to carbon dioxide and furfural. PR-171 concentration For its part furfural undergoes polymerisation as an active aldehyde, and can combine with amino acids, influencing product browning ( Shaw et al., 1993 and Solomon et al., 1995). Table 1 shows the ascorbic acid degradation kinetics of powdered guavira pulp. The values for the constant (k) indicate that the reaction velocity increases with increase in temperature. At 35 °C the storage time was 45 days, which, multiplied by the factor of 1.09 given by Q10, resulted in a shelf life of 49 days under storage conditions at 25 °C. The moisture content for these conditions was 10.0% and 5.4% for 35 °C and 25 °C, respectively. According to Silva, Gurjão, ever Almeida, Bruno, & Pereira, 2008, the oxidation of ascorbic acid is mainly influenced by an increase in temperature, whereas Lee and Kader (2000) reported that this vitamin was easily oxidised in aqueous media and in the presence of oxygen, metal ions and alkaline pH values, amongst other factors. Galdino et al. (2003) explained that this behaviour could be attributed

to the low protection provided by polyethylene, making the material susceptible to the effects of micro-environments created in the setting up of trials, allowing for the migration of moisture from the environment until reaching equilibrium. Table 2 shows the mean values obtained for the pH and titratable acidity of the powdered guavira pulp stored in polyethylene packages. A decrease in the pH value with time can be seen under both storage conditions, reaching values of 4.17 and 3.94 at the end of the storage period. According to Martins, Jongen, and Van Boekel (2000), non-enzymatic browning reactions are favoured by high pH values, and are inhibited at pH values below 5.0. The influence of pH was also observed with respect to enzymatic browning.

Our patient improved over the next 10 days and was discharged in

Our patient improved over the next 10 days and was discharged in good condition to complete a total of 4 weeks of daily oral ivermectin therapy. S. stercoralis, an intestinal nematode endemic to Africa, Southeast Asia, Central and South America, has a complex life cycle involving the pulmonary and gastrointestinal

systems. 1 Infection is often asymptomatic. Symptomatic disease ranges from nonspecific cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and respiratory manifestations to an often fatal hyperinfection syndrome. Pulmonary symptoms include cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and hemoptysis. An asthma-like syndrome can be seen with chronic Strongyloides infection. Respiratory symptoms are thought to be caused by larval migration across SCR7 cell line alveolar-septal walls, larval maturation in pulmonary parenchyma, or widespread dissemination during the hyperinfection syndrome. 2 A hyperinfection syndrome occurs when decreased cell-mediated immunity enables accelerated

autoinfection, causing widespread parasitemia. Risk factors for hyperinfection include corticosteroids, stem-cell transplantation, alcoholism, HIV, and HTLV-1 infection. Common manifestations include fever, abdominal pain, anemia, and diarrhea.3 and 4 Gram-negative bacteremia see more is a frequent complication, resulting from bacterial translocation in the intestine due to mucosal disruption by Strongyloides larvae. Pulmonary symptoms develop in 85% of hyperinfection patients.2 Manifestations include pulmonary infiltrates, DAH, and respiratory failure, all of which developed in our patient. Though she also had E. coli bacteremia, we believe this was due to urosepsis rather than Benzatropine intestinal translocation. S. stercoralis

hyperinfection carries a high mortality rate of 70–89% in modern series. 1, 3 and 4 All cases complicated by DAH in the medical literature have reported fatal outcomes. Detection of disseminated disease requires high clinical suspicion. Diagnosis is often made by identification of larvae in stool, sputum, or BAL fluid. Ivermectin or albendazole are first-line treatments for uncomplicated infection. In disseminated disease, optimal treatment remains uncertain. Oral ivermectin may be ineffective due to ileus associated with hyperinfection syndrome. Thus, subcutaneous ivermectin has been used in cases of disseminated Strongyloides. 5 It is unclear why our patient developed the hyperinfection syndrome during this admission since she had been on corticosteroids for the preceding 3 months. It is possible that the administration of IV methylprednisolone on admission resulted in further immunosuppression and precipitated her deterioration. Our patient improved dramatically after treatment with oral and subcutaneous ivermectin. She represents the first case of survival in DAH from disseminated Strongyloides. In spite of this success, the ideal treatment for disseminated strongyloidiasis remains unknown.

The hexane extract was concentrated under

The hexane extract was concentrated under AZD6244 solubility dmso reduced pressure, yielding an oil (26.9 g). The oil was then purified via silica gel column chromatography (Merck 7734) and eluted with 20% acetone/hexane. It was further purified using the same method (Merck 9385), followed by octadecyl silica gel column chromatography (YMC GEL ODS-A) with a gradient of methanol in water to yield urushiols. The final concentration of extracted urushiol was 10 mg/mL. Age-matched 6-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (Dooyeol Biotech, Inc., Seoul, Korea) were used in all experiments. Only male mice were used, given the hormonal changes of female mice. The mean body weights of the mice in each group are listed in Table 1. A total of 60 male C57BL/6 mice were housed individually

in steel microisolator cages maintained at 22°C with a 12-hour/12-hour light/dark cycle. The mice were randomly assigned to six dietary groups (n = 10). Each group of mice received one of the following six diets for 10 weeks:

(1) standard chow diet (normal feed); (2) alcohol diet (a Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet with 10% alcohol); (3) control diet (a Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet with PI3K inhibitor 10% alcohol and normal feed); (4) KRG diet (200 mg/kg/day of KRG with normal feed for 4 weeks after a Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet with 10% alcohol for 6 weeks); (5) urushiol diet (0.128 mg/mL/day of urushiol with normal feed for 4 weeks after a Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet with 10% alcohol for 6 weeks); and (6) probiotics diet (1 mg/mL/day Anacetrapib of L. rhamnosus R0011 and L. acidophilus R0052 with normal feed for 4 weeks after a Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet with 10% alcohol for 6 weeks; Fig. 1). The liquid diets were based on the Lieber–DeCarli ethanol formulation and purchased from Dooyeol Biotech, Inc. Protein, fat, and carbohydrates constitute, respectively, 18.9%,

16.5%, and 64.5% of the calories of the Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet. Lacidofil, KRG, and urushiol suspended in distilled water were orally administered using a gastric tube five times a week, for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed via isoflurane inhalation. A midline abdominal incision was performed, and blood was collected through the orbital canal. Whole-blood (600 μL) samples were centrifuged at 1,500 × g for 15 minutes to collect the serum. The liver was rapidly excised and stored at −80°C. The animals received humane care, and all procedures were conducted in accordance with the National Institutes of Health Guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Hallym University College of Medicine, Gangwon Do, Korea approved this study. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were analyzed with a biochemical blood analyzer (KoneLab 20, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Finland). After rinsing the tissue samples with a cell wash buffer once, they were cut into 3 mm × 3 mm pieces and transferred to a 2 mL tissue grinder.

This shows higher sensitivity to relational than non-relational i

This shows higher sensitivity to relational than non-relational information, consistent with hierarchical incrementality. Fast encoding of an “easy” agent before 400 ms was then followed by a shift of attention to the patient around 400 ms. In click here other words, speakers did not continue fixating the subject character after 400 ms as predicted by the strong version of linear incrementality (Gleitman et al., 2007), but systematically shifted their gaze back to the patient. This type of character-by-character encoding is consistent with a weaker version of linear incrementality, where speakers do attempt to encode information about both

characters early in the formulation process but, crucially, they encode this information sequentially. Thus the rise and fall of fixations to the agent after 400 ms was also predicted by Agent codability: fixations to agents were generally delayed after 400 ms if agents attracted more attention before 400 ms, and vice versa. Specifically, formulation in events with “harder” agents showed that there is a benefit to distributing attention more evenly between the two characters before 400 ms: formulation after 400 ms continued with rapid,

preferential encoding of the agent. Importantly, shifts of gaze to the agent after 400 ms and away from the agent after 1000 ms BTK activity inhibition were also influenced by Event codability: as predicted by hierarchical incrementality, speakers began fixating the patient earlier in higher-codability

events than lower-codability events. As expected, the lexical primes produced analogous effects to Agent codability: within 400 ms of picture onset, speakers directed more fixations to the agent after agent primes than after patient primes and neutral primes. This shows 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase that the agent primes selectively influenced encoding of the agent character and that they increased the likelihood of speakers prioritizing encoding of this character (non-relational information) shortly after picture onset. A shift of gaze away from the agent was then observed after 400 ms, confirming the tendency to encode sentences character by character after priming non-relational information. Finally, after 1000 ms speakers looked at the agent for less time after agent and patient primes than neutral primes, and thus shifted their gaze to the patient earlier when either character had been primed than when the primes mentioned an unrelated character. Taken together, the results show a direct link between the ease of encoding non-relational and relational information and the timecourse of formulation, both during the early deployment of attention to the subject character and then the deployment of attention to the object character around speech onset.

, 2013a) Moreover, in genotype Koster we observed a high increme

, 2013a). Moreover, in genotype Koster we observed a high increment of Cr in the second rotation, as compared to Skado. This could be because Skado grew faster than Koster in the first rotation, and occupied the soil more rapidly. In the second rotation Skado had less space to grow, while Koster still had some soil to occupy. The potential of SRWC to sequester C in the soil has

been recently questioned by Walter et al. (2014). However, the belowground woody biomass (Stu + Cr + Mr) represents the second largest C pool of the SRWC system (Berhongaray, 2014). This long-term belowground biomass also contributed to the enhancement of the C sequestration GW-572016 supplier along the four years of the plantation (Pacaldo et al., 2014). The value observed for the C sequestration (240 g C m−2) was much higher than the 90 g C m−2 reported for an SRWC plantation in Canada (Arevalo et al., 2011). This might be due to the higher planting density at our site. Although the aboveground biomass for genotype Skado was 23% higher than for Koster, there were no differences in the total belowground biomass. Another study that compared aboveground contrasting genotypes also found that genotypes were less clearly contrasted belowground than aboveground (Dickmann et al., 1996). The root:shoot ratio exponentially decreased with basal area in a similar way for

both genotypes before and after coppice (pre- and post-coppice, Fig. 6). This interesting Capmatinib concentration observation rejected our second hypothesis of a change in the root:shoot ratio after a tree is converted from a single-stem to a multi-shoot system (i.e. from pre- to post-coppice). As for the Cr biomass the genotypic differences in root:shoot Rebamipide ratios were attributed to differences in the BA. For young Scots pines an increment of the root:shoot ratio with stem diameter increment was reported, in contrast to our findings (Xiao and Ceulemans, 2004). This could be explained by the fact that these evergreen

trees were growing on poor forest soils. Similar to various other studies (reviewed by Mokany et al., 2006) we found that the root:shoot ratio increased with increasing aboveground biomass. Biomass allocation (to above- versus belowground) was not under strong genetic control, in contrast to some other studies that compared different poplar genotypes (King et al., 1999 and Yin et al., 2005). In this study we compared, however, only two genotypes under non-limiting growth conditions. In this study we used the technique of core sampling for the determination of Fr biomass, and tree excavation for the biomass estimations of Mr and Cr. The core sampling methodology is recommended for the sampling of uniformly distributed roots, such as for Fr biomass (Levillain et al., 2011). With increasing root diameters the (spatial) variability of the lateral root distribution also increases; so the sampling of an increasing amount of soil volume enables a better sampling of this belowground heterogeneity.

These points should be investigated in the future While we are s

These points should be investigated in the future. While we are still waiting

for new tools for visualizing and measuring of gaseous molecules in situ, the field of Gas Biology has added several cutting-edge technologies. Historically, it has not been easy to evaluate the brain tissue pO2 especially in conscious unanesthetized animals as nicely reviewed by Ndubuizu and LaManna (2007). Recently the principle of O2-dependent phosphorescence quenching of a newly engineered porphyrinic probe, platinum porphyrin-coumarin-343, combined with a two-photon approach revealed the PO2 in the brain tissue and in the vasculature with high spatial and temporal resolution in three dimension ( Sakadzic et al., 2010). Although Selleckchem Bcl-2 inhibitor currently limitted to the detection of Ag-halide clusters, unique development potentially offers the high resolution H2S tissue map ( Akahoshi et al., 2012). The method exploits high affinity of silver atom for sulfur and time-of-flight–secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF–SIMS) for high sensitivity to detect trace elements. The tissue section is brought on the surface of nano-sized silver particles deposited on the silicon click here plates for the silver to react with

tissue-derived H2S. Furthermore, when combined with metabolome analysis, large-scale computational biosimulation of metabolism turned out to be a useful strategy to develop hypotheses on regulatory mechanisms for metabolic systems, as demonstrated by the study to predict novel roles of hemoglobin

to trigger hypoxia-induced glycolytic activation through multiple enzymes ( Kinoshita et al., 2007). High-performance affinity latex beads ( Sakamoto et al., 2009) could offer a powerful method to elucidate gas-sensitive proteins in various experimental conditions. Now that many biochemical investigations have made sound bases for the interactions of gas mediators at the level of purified enzymes, our hope is to bridge accumulated knowledge in vitro to solving Protein kinase N1 problems in vivo. With the help of cutting-edge technologies, we should be able to gain new insights into the complexities of gas interactions and translate experimental work into new therapies to treat human diseases. No competing financial interests exist. This work is supported by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO (Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology), Suematsu Gas Biology Project, Tokyo 160-8582 to M.S., by Keio Gijuku Academic Development Funds to M.K., and by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 21500353 from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science to M.K. Imaging MS microscopy is supported by Ministry of Economy, Technology and Industry of Japan to M.S, and Grant-in-Aid for SENTAN from JST.

The first aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that hormo

The first aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that hormones (including insulin) and the branchial pulse rate (the autonomic nervous system activity) affected the flux of FFA in the blood. For this analysis, a path model was established and estimates of the model fit and the hypothesis were then Selleck EGFR inhibitor tested. The second aim of this study was to test whether FRG consumption affects the relationship between the independent variables of several hormones and the autonomic nervous system and the dependent variable of FFA. The study hypotheses were: (1) ACTH, growth hormone (GH), E2, glucocorticoid, tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone, and/or insulin influence

the release of FFA; (2) the brachial pulse rate, which represents the activity of the autonomic nervous system and affects the release of FFA from adipocytes; and (3) the consumption of FRG changes the rate of FFA release, and this release is mediated by FRG on ER or GR. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Sahmyook University (Seoul, Korea). The study participants were 117 postmenopausal women (age 50–73 yr) who were recruited from four Catholic churches. Participants with FDA approved Drug Library purchase any disease, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and kidney

disease, were excluded. None of the study participants took any supplements for 2 wk prior to or during the experiment. Anthropometric parameters were used to evaluate and categorize the 117 participants, who then had their brachial and ankle blood pressure and brachial and ankle blood pulse measured twice, once in Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase the supine position and again after a 10-min rest period. Although the brachial and ankle pressures and pulse rate vary according to the spectrum of life activity, the pressure and the pulse in the supine position can be considered as the pressure and the pulse of a participant in a resting state. After overnight fasting, blood and urine samples from the 117

participants were collected from 8:00 am to 10:00 am. The study participants were then divided into two groups according to the double-blind method of drawing lots. One group was supplied with capsules containing FRG powder (Bifido Inc., Gangwon-do, Korea), and the other group was supplied with placebo capsules containing edible starch for 2 wk. Because a hypothesis of this study was that ginsenosides are ligands of nuclear receptors and that the effects of a nuclear receptor can begin within 2 h, we considered that 2 wk of FRG consumption was sufficient. The ingredients of the FRG capsules were as follows: crude saponin, 258.6 mg/g; compound K, 57.05 mg/g; Rg3, 53.85 mg/g; Rh2, 11.97 mg/g; Rg2, 5.72 mg/g; Rh1, 2.99 mg/g; and Rb1, 0.023 mg/g. The total weight of the FRG capsule powder was 2.1 g. After 2 wk, 24 women dropped out of the study; therefore, 93 women (49 in the FRG group and 45 in the placebo group) participated in the second blood sample collection.

An influential theory in this field is “scanpath theory” (Norton

An influential theory in this field is “scanpath theory” (Norton & Stark, 1971), which proposed that reinstatement of the sequence of eye-movements made during encoding of a visual stimulus plays a causal role in its subsequent successful recognition. A hard interpretation of this theory entails that recapitulation of eye-movements made during encoding of visual scenes facilitates successful recall. However, a recent study GSK2118436 purchase by Martarelli and Mast (2013) manipulated eye-position during pictorial recall and found that there was no increase in memory accuracy when participants looked at areas where stimuli had previously appeared, in comparison to when

they looked at non-corresponding areas of screen. Similarly, Foulsham and Kingstone (2013) have recently reported a series of experiments in which participants’ fixations were constrained during selleck compound encoding and recognition of images in order to manipulate scanpath similarity. Although scanpath similarity was a predictor of recognition accuracy, there was no recognition advantage when participants re-viewed their own fixations of a

scene versus someone else’s, or for retaining serial order of fixations between encoding and recognition. Foulsham and Kingston conclude that while congruency in eye-movements between encoding and retrieval is beneficial for scene recognition, there is no evidence to suggest recapitulation of the exact scanpath at encoding is necessary for accurate recall. Our own results are broadly in line with these recent findings, as there is no evidence from Experiment 3 in the present study that the ability to engage in saccade preparation to memorized locations

is necessary for their accurate recall. Thus, while the rehearsal of directly salient locations in the oculomotor system allows for optimal spatial memory at recall, we regard this as a contributing mnemonic mechanism that operates in conjunction with visually-based strategies such as mental path construction or visual imagery (Parmentier et al., 2005 and Rudkin et al., 2007). Critically, we have previously shown PLEK2 that eye-abduction only reduces, rather than abolishes, spatial memory even when applied across all encoding, maintenance, and retrieval stages of a trial (Ball et al., 2013). Therefore, clearly the involvement of oculomotor encoding and rehearsal enhances spatial memory for a sequence of visually-salient locations rather than critically enables it. However, this position is not dissimilar to that observed when articulatory suppression is used to prevent subvocal rehearsal of words and digits during verbal working memory ( Baddeley et al., 1975 and Murray, 1967), where verbal memory span is significantly reduced but not abolished ( Baddeley, 2003). Both the findings of Ball et al.

Nevertheless, Al and Ni concentrations cannot be linked logically

Nevertheless, Al and Ni concentrations cannot be linked logically to the spatial relationships identified in the sediment or to impacts arising from the LACM spill. Although floodplains are known accumulation zones for sediment, this study found that surface floodplain samples exhibited lower total Cu concentrations (Max = 180 mg/kg, GM = 50 mg/kg – Table 2) compared to channel surface samples Raf activation (Max = 540 mg/kg, GM = 63 mg/kg – Table 1). This pattern of higher metal values in channel sediment than floodplain materials is the reverse of what Taylor and Hudson-Edwards (2008) reported from the much bigger ephemeral Leichhardt River, at Mount

Isa, some 140 km to the south-east. Given that the Saga and Inca creeks rise in a semi-arid environment, this system is also characterised by short periods of flooding and longer periods of limited or no water flow. According to

Ladd et al. (1998), under such conditions slack water drapes of fine-grained material can form, covering coarser deposits in channel beds, which may act as storage zones for heavy metals and result in localised zones of contamination (Hudson-Edwards et al., 2005). Thus, targeting the sampling from these sediment accumulation zones may have contributed to the finding Caspase inhibitor that channel sediment-metal concentrations were higher compared to floodplain deposits. Measurement of the lateral (up to a maximum of 200 m wide) and vertical (0–2 cm) footprint of floodplain Cu deposition from the LACM spill within the Saga and Inca systems allows the total volume of contaminated floodplain sediment to be estimated at 41,300 m3 (∼16.5 Olympic swimming pools); benchmarked relative to the ISQG – low guideline values (ANZECC and ARMCANZ, 2000).

Floodplain surface sediments (0–2 cm) are significant because they are the most accessible component to cattle and native animals. Stone and Droppo (1996) assessed the distribution of Cu, Pb and Zn in agricultural catchments of southern Ontario, Canada, heptaminol and showed that the potential sediment-metal bioavailability increased with decreasing grain size. Although grain size studies were not undertaken specifically in the Saga and Inca creek catchment, it is well documented that fine-grained sediment is the dominant particle size fraction of floodplain alluvium (Brewer and Taylor, 1997, Graf et al., 1991, Marron, 1989, Moore et al., 1989, Reneau et al., 2004, Taylor, 1996 and Walling and Owens, 2003). In contrast, coarse fractions generally relate to bed load sediment deposited in the channel (Malmon et al., 2002). Therefore, despite the lower floodplain sediment Cu values, it is reasonable to hypothesise that the accidental ingestion of fine-grained floodplain surface sediment (0–2 cm) during grazing poses the greatest potential risk to cattle compared to channel sediment-metals, in part because of the longer time spent grazing than drinking water.