Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollar

Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through “improper means” is misappropriation.

If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today’s interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees’ careers, life science companies need find more to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend

against a claim for trade secret theft.”
“Gliosarcomas are uncommon primary tumors of the central nerve 11 such examples. There were 6 female and 5 male patients (median age, 18y; range, 2 to 63). The tumors were located in the parieto-occipital (n = 2), temporal (n = 1), parietal (n = 1), frontal (n = 1), and occipital lobes (n = 1), as well as the lateral ventricles (n = 2), insula (n = 1), cerebellopontine angle (n = 1), and fourth ventricle/cerebellopontine angle (n = 1). At presentation, the sarcomatous component was noted in 6 (of 10) cases and the ependymal element was grade III in 7 and grade II in 3 tumors, respectively. The sarcomatous component consisted of a reticulin rich, glial fibrillary acidic protein -negative fibrosarcoma (n = 5) or pleomorphic spindle cell sarcoma (n = 3), and selleck chemicals llc 2 examples with heterologous elements: osseous and cartilaginous (n = 1) and osseous only (n = 1). The single case

involving the fourth ventricle/left cerebellopontine angle consisted of sub-ependyimoma and fibrosarcoma components in roughly equal proportions at presentation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies performed with probes targeting the NF2 gene and other members of the protein 4.1 gene family demonstrated similar alterations in the ependymal and sarcomatous components in the cases tested, including polysomies/polyploidy (n = 3), gains of 1q (n = 3), deletions of 22q (n = 2) and 6q (n = 1), and monosomy 18 (n = 1). There was no evidence of MDM2 or CCND1 amplification EGFR inhibitor in any of the cases tested. On follow-up, 5 patients expired 4 months to 18 years after initial resection and 4 to 11 months after development of the sarcomatous component (mean, 7.6mo); 1 patient is alive at 5 years with recurrent disease, and I is alive without recurrence 12 years after initial gross total resection followed by radiation therapy. Although rare, ependymal neoplasms must be included among the gliomas prone to undergo sarcomatous change and we propose the term “ependymosarcoma” for these tumors.”
“The melanocortin (MC) system is composed of melanocyte-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and their receptors.

Surgical outcomes of the laparoscopic cohort (n = 65) were compar

Surgical outcomes of the laparoscopic cohort (n = 65) were compared with the outcomes of those who had laparotomy (n = 67) at general gynecologic surgery units, and evaluated with respect to indication for surgery, medical comorbidity and obesity. Laparoscopic surgery was attempted in women who accepted minimally invasive management and who had no absolute contraindications to laparoscopy. Surgical inclusion criteria were benign and malignant uterine and adnexal pathologies; benign uterine pathologies when uterine size

was less than 18 weeks’ gestation or myoma smaller than 10 cm; malignancies in apparent early-stage disease. There was no attempt to use laparoscopy for tumor debulking and cytoreductive surgery. www.selleckchem.com/products/cobimetinib-gdc-0973-rg7420.html Exclusion criteria were patients with emergency operations or a concomitant urogynecologic procedure. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test, chi(2) testing and the Fisher exact test. Results: Patients undergoing laparoscopy had a significantly shorter hospital stay (p smaller than 0.001), less intraoperative bleeding

(p smaller than 0.001), less postoperative hemoglobin decline (p smaller than 0.001), less need for blood transfusions (p = 0.007) and a generally lower incidence of complications compared to women who had laparotomy, BV-6 clinical trial regardless of medical comorbidity. Obese patients who had laparoscopy had significantly less intraoperative bleeding and a smaller postoperative hemoglobin drop; no adjunctive complication was observed. In patients over 70 (80 cases) the laparoscopic group (39 cases) maintained significantly less intraoperative bleeding (p smaller than 0.001) and a smaller hemoglobin drop (p smaller than 0.001) with respect to laparotomy, with few postoperative complications. Conclusions: According to the results of the study, laparoscopic surgery appears feasible and safe in elderly patients, regardless of medical comorbidity and obesity. (C) 2013 Elsevier

Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Prochilodus lineatus (curimbata), from the Procholodontidae family, this website is a Brazilian freshwater fish, which is important commercially, nutritionally and ecologically. It is encountered in the Rio da Prata Bay in Southern South America. Studies on the immune system of this fish are scarce, but the physiological mechanisms of the species are analogous to those of other vertebrates. Thus, this work discusses the present study, which correlates P. lineatus leukocytes and the generation of reactive oxygen species after modulatory stimuli. Leukocytes were characterized by light and electron transmission microscopy and investigated by the generation of H2O2 and O-2 (-), using phenol red, flow-cytometry and electron transmission histochemistry.

Another 20 healthy subjects were enrolled as control group (non-D

Another 20 healthy subjects were enrolled as control group (non-DM). Plasma CD146 and P-selectin were measured by ELISA.\n\nResults: Plasma CD146 and P-selectin were significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes with microalbuminuria (DN1) compared with health control

(CD146: 415.3 +/- 29.0 vs. 243.5 +/- 14.7 ng/ml, P < 0.05; P-selectin: 66.8 +/- 3.4 vs. 45.3 +/- 2.7 ng/ml, P < 0.001). With the development of diabetic nephropathy, both plasma CD 146 and P-selectin level progressively rise, with the highest levels in patients with significant renal insufficiency (DN3: 515.9 +/- 36.9 and 81.5 +/- 5.1 ng/ml respectively, P < 0.001). Moreover, the increase in CD146 is positively co-related to the rise of P-selectin in patients Bafilomycin A1 order with type 2 diabetes.\n\nConclusion: Expression of CD146 and P-selectin in patients with type 2 diabetes is elevated, and they are positively

correlated with severity of diabetic nephropathy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We investigated DTI changes, potentially indicating alterations of microstructure and brain tissue integrity in 13 patients with probable progressive CAL-101 cost supranuclear palsy (PSP, Richardson syndrome) at stage III or less and 10 age-matched controls using a whole brain analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. DTI images were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics, a hypothesis-free technique. Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were determined. In patients with PSP, significant increases in FA (P Ferroptosis inhibitor cancer < 0.0001), an unspecific measure of microstructural tissue integrity, were found in the cerebellum and in the superior cerebellar peduncle bilaterally, in the fornix, the body of the corpus callosum and the olfactory region, when compared with age-matched healthy controls. Further, regional reductions in AD (P < 0.0001), an indicator of altered axonal integrity, were observed in the

pons, the right substantia nigra and the cerebellar white matter bilaterally. Significant increases in RD (P < 0.0001), a potential measure of altered myelin integrity, occurred bilaterally in the superior cerebellar peduncle, the cerebellar white matter, the vermis of the cerebellum, the fornix, the body of the corpus callosum, and the olfactory region. RD values in the superior cerebellar peduncle discriminated patients with PSP and controls with high sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (1.0). The findings are supported by neuropathological studies. Our data suggest the usefulness of this clinically available new technique as a possible tool for differential diagnosis. (C) 2010 Movement Disorder Society”
“Purpose: We sought to evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of dual energy (DE) bone and plaque removal in head and neck CT angiography.

Reactive oxygen species are key players in UVR-mediated photodama

Reactive oxygen species are key players in UVR-mediated photodamage EPZ5676 molecular weight and induce the DNA-base-oxidized, intermediate 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Herein, we report the protective action of melatonin against UVR-induced 8-OHdG formation and depletion of antioxidative enzymes using ex vivo human full-thickness skin exposed to

UVR in a dose (0, 100, 300mJ/cm2)- and time-dependent manner (0, 24, 48hr post-UVR). Dynamics of depletion of antioxidative enzymes including catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), or 8-OHdG formation were studied by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence/immunohistochemical staining. UVR-treated skin revealed significant and immediate (0hr 300mJ/cm2) reduction of gene expression, and this effect intensified within 24hr post-UVR. Simultaneous increase in 8-OHdG-positive keratinocytes occurred already after 0hr post-UVR reaching 71% and 99% up-regulation at 100 Ro-3306 cost and 300mJ/cm2, respectively (P<0.001). Preincubation with melatonin (103m) led to 32% and 29% significant reductions in 8-OHdG-positive cells and the prevention of antioxidative enzyme gene and protein suppression. Thus, melatonin was shown to play a crucial role as a potent antioxidant and DNA protectant against UVR-induced oxidative damage in human skin.”
“In this study, we show that top-down control

mechanisms engaged during visual imagery of simple shapes (letters X and O) can selectively activate position-invariant perceptual codes in visual areas specialised for shape processing, including lateral occipital complex (LOC). First, we used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to identify visual cortical areas that code for shape within a position-invariant reference frame. Next, we examined the similarity between these high-level visual codes and patterns elicited while participants imagined the corresponding stimulus at central fixation. Our results demonstrate that imagery engages object-centred codes in higher-level visual areas. P005091 mouse More generally, our results also demonstrate that top-down control

mechanisms are able to generate highly specific patterns of visual activity in the absence of corresponding sensory input. We argue that a general model of top-down control must account for dynamic modulation of functional connectivity between high-level control centres and overlapping neural codes in visual cortex. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“ObjectiveThis study examined the relationships between parental posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), child PTSS, and parent-child concordance for child PTSS.\n\nMethodParticipants were children with cancer (n=199), and healthy children (n=108) and their parents. Children self-reported on PTSS and parents completed measures of child and parent PTSS.\n\nResultsIn the cancer group, child and parent reports of child PTSS were significantly correlated with no mean differences between reporters.

Most of them exhibited high activity against viruses (HSV-1,

Most of them exhibited high activity against viruses (HSV-1, NVP-HSP990 cell line EMCV) and grain-positive bacteria strains (S. aureus, S. simulans), while their activity

against gram-negative bacteria strains (F. coli, P aerughlosa, K. pneumoniae) was substantially, lower. Sonic of tested compounds were active against yeast C albicans and filamentous fungus.A. niger.”
“Background Diabetes and CHF are common comorbidities in hospitalized patients but the relationship between glycaemic control, glycaemic variability, and mortality in patients with both conditions is unclear.\n\nMethods We used administrative data to retrospectively identify patients with a diagnosis of CHF who underwent frequent glucose assessments. TWMG was compared with other measures of glycaemic control and a time-weighted measure of glycaemic variability, the glycaemic lability index. The outcome was hospital mortality.\n\nResults A total of 748 patients were included in the final analysis. Time-weighted mean glucose was higher than unadjusted mean glucose (137 +/- 44.7 mg/dL versus 167 +/- 54.9, p < 0.001), due in part to shorter sampling intervals at higher glucose JNJ-26481585 supplier levels. Hypoglycaemia, defined as a glucose level <70 mg/dL, occurred during 6.3% of patient-days in survivors and 8.4% of patient-days among nonsurvivors (p = 0.05). Time-weighted mean glucose was similar (128 +/- 33.1 mg/dL versus 138 +/- 45.1

mg/dL) in nonsurvivors versus survivors, p = 0.19). However, relatively few patients had were significantly elevated readings. Median GLI was higher in nonsurvivors compared with that in survivors (18.1 versus 6.82, p = 0.0003). Increasing glycaemic lability index (odds ratio 1.32, 95% confidence interval

1.05-1.65), and hypoglycaemia (odds ratio 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.07-4.65), were independently associated with higher mortality in logistic regression analysis. Respiratory failure was associated with mortality, but not standard deviation of glucose.\n\nConclusions Future studies analysing glycaemic control should control for variable sampling intervals. In this analysis, glycaemic lability index was independently associated with increased mortality, independent of hypoglycaemia. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate these findings. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Carcinoid Selleckchem CP 456773 heart disease (CHD) is an uncommon valvular heart disease that may occur in the case of carcinoid syndrome, due to the release of serotonin. Right-sided CHD is more frequent than left-sided CHD because of inactivation of serotonin by the lung. We report the case of a 74-year-old woman who had a previous history of digestive endocrine tumor and carcinoid syndrome, presented with a significant progression of its valvular heart disease during a follow-up of 1 year. A severe shunt through a patent foramen ovale (PFO) was observed and was associated with the development of left-sided CHD.

We undertook pilot sequencing of onion genomic DNA to estimate ge

We undertook pilot sequencing of onion genomic DNA to estimate gene densities and investigate the nature and distribution of repetitive DNAs. Complete sequences from two onion BACs were AT rich (64.8%) and revealed long tracts of degenerated retroviral elements and transposons, similar to other larger plant genomes. Random BACs were end sequenced and only 3 of 460 ends showed significant (e < -25) non-organellar hits to the protein databases. The BAC-end sequences were AT rich (63.4%), similar to the completely sequenced BACs. A total of 499,997 bp of onion ICG-001 cost genomic DNA yielded an estimated mean density of one gene per 168 kb, among the

lowest reported to date. Methyl filtration was highly effective relative to random shotgun reads in reducing frequencies of anonymous sequences from 82 to 55% and increasing non-organellar protein hits from 4 to 42%. Our results revealed no evidence for gene-dense regions and indicated that sequencing of methyl-filtered genomic fragments should be an efficient approach to reveal genic sequences in the onion genome.”
“Deficits in social and communication behaviors are common features of a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the molecular and cellular substrates of these higher order brain functions are not well understood. Here we report that specific alterations in social and communication behaviors in mice

occur as a result of loss of the EPAC2 gene, which encodes a protein kinase A-independent cAMP target. Epac2-deficient mice exhibited robust deficits in social ACY-241 molecular weight interactions and ultrasonic vocalizations, but displayed normal olfaction, working and reference memory, motor abilities, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors. Epac2-deficient mice displayed abnormal columnar organization in the Crenolanib datasheet anterior cingulate cortex, a region implicated in social behavior in humans, but not in somatosensory cortex. In vivo two-photon imaging revealed reduced dendritic

spine motility and density on cortical neurons in Epac2-deficient mice, indicating deficits at the synaptic level. Together, these findings provide novel insight into the molecular and cellular substrates of social and communication behavior.”
“Aims: This study aimed to identify the involvement of class 3 semaphorins (Sema3) and receptors, neuropilins (Np1 and Np2) and plexins (A1-A4) in breast cancer development and angiogenesis.\n\nMethods and results: We quantified and correlated Sema3A, Sema3B, Sema3F and their known receptors and coreceptors Plexin-A1, Plexin-A3, Np1 and Np2 in sections of normal human breast, benign and premalignant hyperplastic tissue, pre-invasive and invasive cancer, and compared these findings with our previously published data on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvessel density (MVD) in the same samples.

30 +/- 0 02% in phosphatidylethanolamine of mice fed safflower, c

30 +/- 0.02% in phosphatidylethanolamine of mice fed safflower, canola, or fish oil, respectively. At 10 days postinfection, histological damage, F4/80-positive macrophages, and myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils in colonic mucosa were higher in infected mice fed safflower than fish oil. Colon gene transcripts

for macrophage inflammatory protein 2, keratinocyte cytokine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression were significantly higher in infected mice fed safflower than canola or fish oil; IFN-gamma, IL-6, and IL-17A expression were significantly elevated in mice fed safflower rather than fish oil; and IL-10 was significantly higher in mice fed fish oil rather than canola or safflower oil. This study demonstrates that Compound C manufacturer oils high in 18:2n-6 with minimal n-3 fatty acids exacerbate mucosal immune response, whereas oils high in n-3 fatty acids attenuate mucosal immune response

to C. rodentium. These studies implicate dietary oils as environmental modifiers of intestinal inflammation in response to infection.”
“E2F is a family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell-cycle progression, DNA replication, DNA repair, differentiation, and apoptosis. E2F1, the founding member of the family, undergoes posttranslational modifications in response to DNA damage, resulting in E2F1 stabilization. In some cases, E2F1 is important for DNA damage-induced apoptosis through the transcriptional activation of p73 and perhaps other proapoptotic target genes. However, in other contexts, E2F1 can stimulate DNA repair and selleck inhibitor promote survival in response to DNA damage. The E2F1 protein accumulates

at sites of both DNA double-strand breaks and UV radiation-induced damage, indicating that E2F1 has a nontranscriptional function at sites of damage. This review summarizes recent progress made in understanding the role of E2F1 in the DNA damage response, including transcription-independent activities that facilitate DNA repair in the context of chromatin. Cancer Res; 72( 1); 13-7. (C) 2011 AACR.”
“Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) improve cognitive performance of rodents, but the few human studies investigating DMH1 datasheet their effects did not systematically investigate cognitive effects and the results have been quite contradictory. Therefore, we examined whether the PDE5-I vardenafil improves memory and executive functioning and affect electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy young adults. Participants were selected out of a group of volunteers, based on their performance on a memory screening and they were orally treated with vardenafil (10-20 mg or placebo). Memory and executive functioning were tested while EEG activity was recorded. Additionally, a simple reaction time task and questionnaires addressing various complaints were presented.

5-17 years of age) treated during 2007-2008 for chronic abdominal

5-17 years of age) treated during 2007-2008 for chronic abdominalgia, Suspicion of functional dyspepsia, and IBS with diarrhea and constipation. The hydrogen breath test was performed in all patients.\n\nResults. The hydrogen breath test revealed SIBO in more than half of the patients with constipation-predominant IBS (54.55%) and rarely in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (2.86%). Lactose malabsorption was observed in 37.14% of diarrhea-predominant IBS, 27.85% of functional dyspepsia, and only 4.55% of constipation-predominant IBS

patients. Lactose intolerance was observed more frequently in diarrhea-predominant IBS (37.14%) and functional dyspepsia (31.65%) patients https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gkt137831.html and in only 4.55% of constipation-dominant IBS patients.\n\nConclusions. SLBO was significantly greater in constipation-predominant IBS than in diarrhea-predominant IBS and functional dyspepsia patients and in controls without GI symptoms. Symptoms of lactose intolerance were more frequent in diarrhea-predominant IBS and functional dyspepsia patients (Adv Clin Exp Med 2009, 18, 5, 493-500).”
“A bioclimatic analysis of the crested tinamous was

conducted to explore climatic factors underpinning the distribution of both Eudromia elegans and E. formosa and to evaluate its potential application in paleontological studies. The study utilized records PCI-34051 throughout the entire known range of Eudromia spp. in southern South America. Relationships between 20 environmental parameters and the presence of Eudromia species were established, mapping and characterizing their spatial distribution in a geographic LY2835219 research buy information system using BIOCLIM and MAXENT algorithms. The MAXENT prediction map shows a more homogeneous pattern while BIOCLIM showed a patchier pattern. The models applied here generated maps that adjust to the well-known previous distributions of both

species. Nevertheless, for Eudromia elegans, the distribution predicted by MAXENT includes areas where it is actually considered absent, and the BIOCLIM prediction does not include some areas where it is presumed present. Eudromia formosa were found in warmer and wetter sites than E. elegans. Low precipitation areas were identified as suitable for Eudromia elegans. Strong differences between the climatic profiles for both Eudromia spp distributions occurred, with the precipitation the most important influence. E. formosa tolerates the highest maximum temperatures, whereas E. elegans supports the lowest temperatures.”
“Background: Comprehensive studies of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes are in their infancy and are critically needed. The present study examined the rate of change in the body mass index (BMI), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), depressive symptoms, and self-concept in adolescents undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) during the first 24 postoperative months using a prospective longitudinal design at a pediatric medical center.\n\nMethods: A total of 16 adolescents (mean age 16.

The individual consciousness is generated and maintained by the q

The individual consciousness is generated and maintained by the quantum mechanical activities of these postulated TCP and TRP in the presence of the thought force (T-F) in vivo. The selleck screening library existence of TCP, TRP and Thought force (T-F) is indicated here to form a possible bridge between mind and matter.”
“Lymphocytes are sensitive to ionizing radiation and naive lymphocytes are more radiosensitive than their memory counterparts. Less is known about radiosensitivity

of memory cell subsets. We examined the radiosensitivity of naive (T-N), effector memory (T-EM), and central memory (T-CM) T cell subsets in C57BL/6 mice and found T-EM to be more resistant to radiation-induced apoptosis than either T-N or T-CM. Surprisingly, we found no correlation GSK1210151A clinical trial between the extent of radiation-induced apoptosis in T cell subsets and 1) levels of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members or 2) the H2AX content and maximal gamma H2AX fold change. Rather, T-EM cell survival correlated with higher levels of immediate gamma H2AX marking, immediate break binding and genome-wide open chromatin structure. T cells were able to mark DNA damage seemingly instantly (30 s), even if kept on ice. Relaxing chromatin with the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid following radiation or etoposide treatment improved the survival of T-CM and T-N cells up to levels seen in the resistant T-EM cells but did not improve survival from

caspase-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that an open genome-wide chromatin state is the key determinant of efficient immediate repair of DNA damage in T cells, explaining the observed T cell subset radiosensitivity differences.”
“A priori, a common receptor induced in tumor microvessels, cancer cells BVD-523 cost and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) that

is involved in tumor angiogenesis, invasiveness, and CSC anoikis resistance and survival, could underlie contemporaneous coordination of these events rather than assume stochasticity. Here we show that functional analysis of the dual endothelin1/VEGFsignal peptide receptor, DEspR, (formerly named Dear, Chr.4q31.2) supports the putative common receptor paradigm in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and glioblastoma (GBM) selected for their invasiveness, CD133+CSCs, and polar angiogenic features. Unlike normal tissue, DEspR is detected in PDAC and GBM microvessels, tumor cells, and CSCs isolated from PDAC-Panc1 and GBM-U87 cells. DEspR-inhibition decreased angiogenesis, invasiveness, CSC-survival and anoikis resistance in vitro, and decreased Panc1-CSC and U87-CSC xenograft tumor growth, vasculo-angiogenesis and invasiveness in nude nu/nu rats, suggesting that DEspR activation would coordinate these tumor progression events. As an accessible, cell-surface ‘common receptor coordinator’, DEspR-inhibition defines a novel targeted-therapy paradigm for pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma.

All patients with colorectal cancer had high plasma malondialdehy

All patients with colorectal cancer had high plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), thioredoxin (Trx) levels, and elevated IDO activity in plasma (IDOp) and in dendritic cells (IDOc). This study shows that treatment buy Vadimezan with cytostatics have an effect on oxidative stress by increasing MDA levels and by decreasing Trx levels and IDO activity. However, treatment with cytostatic-Mabs showed no effect on MDA levels but decreased Trx levels, and the IDO activity

showed values similar to the healthy group. Significant correlations between plasma IDO activity and the levels of Trx (r = 0.2062, p < 0.05) and MDA (r = 0.2873, p < 0.005) were observed. Furthermore, our study suggests that IDO activity measured as kynurenine levels could be used as a marker of the response to the chemotherapy treatments, although further studies are www.selleckchem.com/products/blz945.html necessary.”
“Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins make up a highly diverse and multifunctional protein family that plays a critical role in controlling heterotrimeric G protein signaling. In this study, seven RCS genes (FgFlbA, FgFlbB, FgRgsA, FgRgsB, FgRgsB2, FgRgsC, and FgGprK) were functionally characterized in the plant pathogenic fungus, Gibberella zeae. Mutant phenotypes were observed for deletion mutants of FgRgsA and FgRgsB in vegetative growth, FgFlbB and

FgRgsB in conidia morphology, FgFlbA in conidia production, FgFlbA, FgRgsB, and FgRgsC in sexual development, FgFlbA and FgRgsA in spore germination and mycotoxin production, and FgFlbA, FgRgsA, and FgRgsB in virulence. Furthermore, FgFlbA, FgRgsA, and FgRgsB acted pleiotropically, while FgFlbB and FgRgsC deletion mutants exhibited a specific defect in conidia morphology and sexual development, respectively. Amino acid substitutions in Got subunits and overexpression of the FgFlbA gene revealed that deletion of FgFlbA and dominant active GzGPA2 mutant, gzgpa2(Q207L), SBE-β-CD had similar phenotypes in cell wall integrity, perithecia formation, mycotoxin production, and virulence, suggesting that FgFlbA may regulate asexual/sexual development,

mycotoxin biosynthesis, and virulence through GzGPA2-dependent signaling in G. zeae. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Many patients with the limb-girdle variant of congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) possess mutations in the human Dok-7 gene (DOK7). We identified six unrelated CMS patients with DOK7 mutations. Two patients, one mildly and the other moderately affected, were homozygous for the previously described 1263insC mutation. The common 1124_1127dupTGCC mutation was detected in the other four patients, whose clinical phenotypes range from mildly to severely affected. This striking phenotypic heterogeneity found both within and between mutational classes is made more compelling by data from our electrophysiological studies and electron microscopy of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ).