(12) Comparing this with Keq = exp(−Δg0/kBT) (where kB is Boltzmann’s constant and T is the absolute www.selleckchem.com/products/crenolanib-cp-868596.html temperature) allows us to compute the change in standard Gibbs free energy Δg0=kBTln (M/Na+kM/Nd−k), (13) for the transfer of a single drug molecule from a donor to an acceptor liposome. The enthalpic and entropic contributions to Δg0 will be influenced by k, which is, generally, temperature

dependent(k = k(t)). Let us briefly discuss two cases. First, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical if donor and acceptor liposomes are chemically identical, then k = 0 and Δg0 = kBTln(Nd/Na) has only an entropic contribution. Specifically, for Nd > Na, we find Δg0 > 0 because a given drug molecule has more donor liposomes to reside in than acceptor liposomes. Second, the limiting cases for k, namely, k = −M/Na and k = M/Nd, yield Δg0 → −∞ (thus, with all drugs migrating to the acceptor liposomes) and Δg0 → ∞ (thus with all drugs remaining in the donor liposomes), respectively. We point out that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical our model predicts a simple

exponential time behavior despite the presence of drug transfer through a second-order two-body collision process (i.e., collisions between two liposomes). Chemical reactions that deplete the reactants through binary collisions generally display a long time-tail c(t) ~ 1/t in their concentration dependence. For example, the kinetic behavior of the dimerization reaction 2 monomer→dimer follows the equation c˙=k~c2 where c(t) is the concentration Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the reactant (i.e., the monomers) and k~ the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rate constant. With an initial concentration c(t = 0) = c0 the time behavior becomes c(t)=c0/(1+k~t), implying c(t) ~ 1/t for long times. For our system, however, the numbers of donor and acceptor liposomes remain unchanged. Thus, collisions do not deplete the reactants, and the concentration dependencies of Md(t) and Ma(t) become exponential in time. 2.2. Transfer through Diffusion Only Diffusion allows for transfer

of drug molecules directly through the aqueous phase, without the need of collisions between liposomes. Denoting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the additional state in the aqueous phase by W (in addition to donor (D) and acceptor (A)) the corresponding transport scheme (again, as in (10), Mephenoxalone formally expressed as a chemical reaction) can be written as [14, 37] D⇌KduptKdrel W⇌Karel KauptA, (14) with rate constants Kdrel, Karel, Kdupt, and Kaupt for the drug release (“rel”) and uptake (“upt”) in donor (“d”) and acceptor (“a”) liposomes. To formulate the rate equations, it is useful to first consider the drug distribution function dj(t). We assume the probability of a drug molecule to leave donor liposomes of index j to be proportional to the total number jdj of drug molecules in that liposome population. Similarly, the probability of a drug molecule to enter donor liposomes of index j is assumed to be proportional to the total number (m − j)dj of empty binding sites in that liposome population.