Funding sources include NOAA Cooperative Agreement NA09OAR4320129, PO EA133F09SE4792, the M. S. Worthington Foundation, the North Pond Foundation, Sloan and Hardwick Simmons. The research and disentanglement was conducted under National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Permit 932-1905-00/MA-009526 issued to Dr. Teresa Rowles. Appendix S1. Estimation of body weight from length. Table S1. Width-to-total body length ratios at intervals of 10% of the body for 10 mesomorphic right whales and Eg 3911. “
“Understanding the reproductive parameters of
very small or declining populations selleck inhibitor is of clear importance to conservation. From 1995 to 2011 we recorded calf production (n = 71) and calf survival for 27 breeding females in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) population in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand; a population with a recent history of declining abundance. Overall, 67% of calves survived their first this website year, and 40% survived to 3 yr (or are 2 yr old and still alive). Most calves that died in the first year died in their first month (87%). Multiparous mothers (n = 18) showed high
variation in calf survival. The most successful six had all but one of their 20 calves (95%) survive to 1 yr. Fourteen of the 20 (70%) survived to 3 yr, and another four are still alive and are 1 or 2 yr old. In contrast, the least successful seven mothers produced a similar number of calves (21), eight of which (38%) survived to 1 yr, and none to 3 yr. Here we describe calving seasonality and calf survival, observed over 16 yr, and
show that large variation in reproductive success of individual females is an example of extreme demographic stochasticity in this small, endangered population. “
“Telomeres are the protective caps at the ends of all eukaryotic chromosomes. Because DNA replication of chromosome ends is incomplete, telomeres undergo sequence loss with each cell division resulting in the progressive shortening of their lengths. Telomere shortening with age is known from terrestrial mammals. We test whether this pattern is shared by marine mammals, by comparing telomere lengths between age classes in a pinniped species, the Australian sea PFKL lion (Neophoca cinerea). Telomere lengths were measured using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method in specimens from three age classes: pup (<1.5 yr), juvenile (1.5–5 yr), and adult (>5 yr). Mean telomere lengths of the adults were significantly shorter than the juvenile and pup classes. However, we were unable to differentiate between pups and juveniles. These findings confirm that the Australian sea lion shares the general pattern of shortening telomere lengths with age as documented in terrestrial mammals.