Additionally, we also found that pretreatment with SR12813 led to

Additionally, we also found that pretreatment with SR12813 led to reduced apoptosis of the two cell strains induced by chemotherapeutic agents. In conclusion, PXR expression has an important effect on the sensitivity to chemotherapy of PXR-positive breast carcinoma. The inhibitory effect of PXR on cell apoptosis may contribute to the drug resistance of breast carcinoma.”
“Objective: We sought direct evidence

that acute exposure to environmental-strength electromagnetic fields (EMFs) could induce somatic reactions (EMF hypersensitivity). Methods: The subject, a female physician self-diagnosed with EMF hypersensitivity, was exposed to an average (over the head) 60-Hz electric field of 300 V/m (comparable with typical environmental-strength EMFs) during controlled provocation and behavioral studies. Results: In a double-blinded EMF provocation procedure specifically designed to minimize unintentional sensory cues, the subject developed temporal pain, headache, muscle twitching, and skipped heartbeats within 100 s after initiation of EMF exposure (p < .05). The symptoms were caused primarily by field transitions (off-on, on-off) rather than the

presence of the field, as assessed by comparing the frequency and severity of the effects of pulsed and continuous fields in relation to sham exposure. The subject had no conscious perception of the field as judged by her inability to report its presence more often than in the sham control. Discussion: The subject demonstrated statistically reliable somatic reactions in response BMS-345541 inhibitor to exposure to subliminal EMFs under conditions that reasonably excluded a causative role for psychological processes. Conclusion: EMF hypersensitivity can occur as a bona fide environmentally inducible neurological syndrome.”
“Aim: The effect of systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (SRL) remains controversial in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (aEOC) who are optimally debulked. Material find more and Methods: Demographic and clinicopathologic data were obtained from the Tokai Ovarian Tumor Study Group between 1986 and 2009. All patients were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 93):

(i) patients did not undergo SRL; and (ii) lymph node exploration or sampling was optional. Group B (n = 87): patients underwent SRL. Survival curves were calculated using the KaplanMeier method. Differences in survival rates were analyzed using the logrank test. Results: All pT34 aEOC patients were optimally debulked (residual tumor <1 cm). The median age was 55 years (range: 1884). The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates of groups A and B were 46.7 and 41.9%, respectively (P = 0.658). In addition, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 62.9 and 59.0%, respectively (P = 0.853). Subsequently, there was no significant difference in OS and PFS in the two groups stratified to histological type (serous or non-serous type).

Results: All patients were male (median age, 8 years) Stage dist

Results: All patients were male (median age, 8 years). Stage distribution was stage III in three patients and Mizoribine price stage IV in two patients. Three patients had B-cell lymphoma and two had T-cell lymphoma. Reduced doses of Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (BFM) and French Society of Pediatric Oncology (SFOP) regimens were used in four patients according to histopathological subtype. The two patients with ataxia and one patient with Bloom’s Syndrome died of progressive/relapsed disease at months 5, 19, and 6, respectively. The

patient with CVID associated with T-cell lymphoma has been in remission for 7 years. A full-dosage regimen of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) was successfully used in the patient with WAS and B-cell lymphoma; he was still in remission after 3 years. Conclusion: Primary immunodeficiency diseases are one of the strongest known risk factors for the development of NHL. Management of these patients remains problematic. There

is a great need to develop new therapeutic approaches in this group. The use of rituximab in combination with CHOP may provide a promising treatment option for B-cell CX-6258 lymphomas associated with immunodeficiency.”
“This study examined the association of norovirus with foodborne disease outbreaks linked to food handlers and foodborne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis associated with norovirus, in comparison to Salmonella foodborne gastroenteritis. Comparative analysis using chi(2)-tests showed no similarity between the outbreaks from norovirus and those from Salmonella. Odds ratios also showed a stronger similarity between the proportions of food handler-implicated norovirus outbreaks than from Salmonella-implicated

outbreaks. An analysis of data found norovirus transmission to occur more frequently spread person-to-person, unlike Salmonella, but similar to influenza or rotavirus. Norovirus was also not shown to be associated with food consumption. The data collection tool that focuses on food handlers as a source JQ-EZ-05 chemical structure of the virus may be better including the general human population. Such an enteric virus would be better understood through its similarity to the person-to-person transmission model resulting in pandemic spread.”
“The behavior of naturally virulent Meloidogyne isolates toward the tomato resistance gene Mi in major tomato-growing areas in Israel was studied for the first time. Virulence of seven selected isolates was confirmed over three successive generations on resistant (Mi-carrying) and susceptible (non-Mi-carrying) tomato cultivars. Diagnostic markers verified the predominance of Meloidogyne javanica among virulent isolates selected on resistant tomato cultivars or rootstocks.

The liver was chosen because it is the

main site of lipid

The liver was chosen because it is the

main site of lipid metabolism. Apo E(-/-) mice received for 2 weeks a standard diet supplemented with a nutritional dose of BE (0.02%). This study focused on the early stage of atherosclerosis development for better assessment of anthocyanin action on initiation mechanisms of this pathology. The results showed that a 2-week supplementation significantly reduced plasmatic total cholesterol and hepatic triglyceride levels, whereas Smoothened Agonist mw the plasmatic antioxidant status remained unchanged. Transcriptional analysis, using microarrays, revealed that the expression of 2,289 genes was significantly altered. BE over-expressed genes involved in bile acid synthesis and cholesterol uptake into the liver and down-regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. These results suggest an anti-atherogenic effect of Repotrectinib price BE through the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and liver inflammation and provide a global integrated view of the mechanisms involved in the preventive action of this extract.”
“Nitrogen metabolite repression (NMR) in filamentous fungi is controlled by the GATA transcription factors AreA and AreB. While AreA mainly acts as a positive regulator of NMR-sensitive genes,

the role of AreB is not well understood. We report the characterization of AreB and its interplay with AreA in the gibberellin-producing fungus Fusarium fujikuroi. The areB locus produces three different transcripts that each code for functional proteins fully complementing the areB deletion mutant that influence growth and secondary metabolism. However, under nitrogen repression, the AreB isoforms differ in subcellular localization indicating distinct functions

under these conditions. In addition, AreA and two isoforms of AreB colocalize in the nucleus under low nitrogen, but their nuclear localization disappears under conditions of high nitrogen. Using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) approach we showed for the first time that one of the AreB isoforms interacts with AreA when HSP tumor starved of nitrogen. Cross-species complementation revealed that some AreB functions are retained between F. fujikuroi and Aspergillus nidulans while others have diverged. By comparison to other fungi where AreB was postulated to function as a negative counterpart of AreA, AreB can act as both repressor and activator of transcription in F. fujikuroi.”
“People with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have difficulty learning new motor skills. Evidence suggests external stimuli (cues) may enhance learning; however, this may be specific to cued rather than non-cued performance. We aimed to test effects of cued training on motor learning in PD. We defined motor learning as acquisition (single task), automaticity (dual task) and retention of single- and dual-task performance (follow-up). 153 subjects with PD received 3 weeks cued gait training as part of a randomised trial (the RESCUE trial).

Catalytic AChE-T subunit and agrin isoforms 19 and 0 followed dif

Catalytic AChE-T subunit and agrin isoforms 19 and 0 followed different expression patterns. In accordance with the reports of other authors., our investigations

also revealed various alternative functions for AChE and agrin. We have already demonstrated participation of AChE in myoblast apoptosis; here we present the evidence that agrin promotes the maturation of heavy myosin chains and the excitation-contraction coupling. These results show that common features of AChE Selleckchem Torin 2 and agrin extend to their capacity to play multiple roles in muscle development. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We consider a hierarchical two-layer model of natural signals in which both layers are learned from the data. Estimation is accomplished by score matching, a recently proposed RG-7388 estimation principle for energy-based models. If the first-layer outputs are squared and the second-layer weights are constrained to be nonnegative, the model learns responses similar to complex cells in primary visual cortex from natural images. The second layer pools a small number of features with similar orientation and frequency, but differing in spatial phase. For speech data, we obtain analogous results. The model unifies previous extensions to independent component

analysis such as subspace and topographic models and provides new evidence that localized, oriented, phase-invariant features reflect the statistical properties of natural image patches.”
“In the DSM-IV-TR, specific impulse control disorders not elsewhere classified (ICD) have been designated following four principles: (1) through the addition of an adjective that emphasizes the aberrant

character of an otherwise normal behaviour (e.g., pathological gambling); Kinesin inhibitor (2) by means of metaphors (such as in intermittent explosive disorder); (3) according to the presumably quintessential nature of their main signs and symptoms, such as impulsive (e.g., impulse control disorders not elsewhere classified), compulsive (e.g., compulsive shopping), or addictive (e.g., internet addiction); or (4) using Greek suffix mania (e.g., kleptomania, pyromania, and trichotillomania). Given this flagrant inconsistency, we argue that time has come to adopt a less arbitrary way of describing these disorders, at least until it becomes clearer whether they are really impulsive, compulsive or addictive or if the preoccupation with this distinction is valid. In keeping with DSM’s emphasis on descriptive phenomenology rather than on unsupported theory, a less biased terminology is in order.

To manipulate physically individual synapses in a living organism

To manipulate physically individual synapses in a living organism, we have developed a laser ablation technique for removing single synapses in live neurons in C. elegans that operates without apparent

damage to the axon. As a complementary technique, we applied microfluidic immobilization of C. elegans to facilitate long-term fluorescence imaging and observation of neuronal development. With this technique, we directly demonstrated the existence of competition between developing synapses in the HSNL motor neuron. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This study investigated the expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and T cell immunoglobulin mucin and domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthmatic mice and the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on these factors. Thirty-six mice were randomly divided into three groups: normal group, asthmatic group and DEX group. The buy PCI-34051 mouse model of asthma was established by sensitization with ovalbumin in both the asthmatic and DEX groups. The levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-beta were measured in BALF by enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA expression level of Tim-3 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The ratio of Tim-3+CD4+ cells to total CD4+ cells in BALF was determined selleck chemical by flow cytometry. Differential inflammatory

cells in BALF were detected. The correlations among IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, Tim-3 and inflammatory cells were analyzed. The results showed that the levels of IL-17, IL-6 and Tim-3 were substantially increased and the IL-10 level decreased in BALF in the asthmatic mice, which was significantly reversed by DEX treatment. IL-17 expression was positively correlated with IL-6 and Tim-3 SB273005 chemical structure expression and the number of inflammatory cells but negatively with IL-10 expression. These results indicate

that the increased expression of IL-17 and Tim-3 in BALF may be implicated in the occurrence and development of asthmatic inflammation; the mechanism by which DEX suppresses asthmatic airway inflammation involves down-regulation of IL-17 and Tim-3 levels.”
“The presence of macroscopic fat in an adrenal mass has classically been associated with myelolipoma. Adrenocortical carcinoma is typically an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The presence of macroscopic fat is not a characteristic finding in adreocortical carcinoma or other adrenal malignancies. We report a case of a newly discovered large adrenal mass containing multiple areas of macroscopic fat, which was pathologically proven to represent an adrenocortical carcinoma.”
“Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with epidermal barrier defects which leads to dry skin that is easily disturbed by external exacerbating. factors.

In H pylori-associated atrophy,

hypochlorhydria has a rol

In H pylori-associated atrophy,

hypochlorhydria has a role in iron deficiency (ID) through changes in the physiology of iron-complex absorption. The aims were to evaluate the association between H pylori-associated hypochlorhydria and ID in children.\n\nMethods Symptomatic children (n=123) were prospectively enrolled. Blood, gastric juice and gastric biopsies were taken, respectively, for haematological analyses, pH assessment and H pylori determination, and duodenal biopsies for exclusion of coeliac disease. Stool samples were collected for parasitology/microbiology. Thirteen children were excluded following parasitology and duodenal histopathology, and five due to impaired blood analysis.\n\nResults Ten children were hypochlorhydric (pH>4) and 33 were H pylori positive. In H pylori-positive children with pH>4 (n=6) serum iron and transferrin saturation levels % were significantly lower (p<0.01) than H pylori-positive children with pH <= 4. No differences in ferritin, or total iron binding capacity, were observed. In H pylori-negative children with pH>4, iron and transferrin saturation were not significantly different from children with pH <= 4.\n\nConclusions

Low serum iron and transferrin in childhood H pylori infection is associated with hypochlorhydria. In uninfected children, hypochlorhydria was not associated with altered serum iron parameters, indicating a combination of H pylori infection and/or inflammation, and IPI-145 hypochlorhydria has a role in the aetiology of ID. Although H pylori-associated hypochlorhydria is transient during acute gastritis, this alters iron homeostasis with clinical impact in developing countries with a high H pylori prevalence.”
“Carcinosarcoma is an uncommon biphasic malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. We report a case of an 84-year-old male with multiple carcinosarcomas occurring in the esophagus and stomach. Endoscopically, a bulky pedunculated polypoid lesion was observed in

the middle of the esophagus and a huge discoid lesion in the lesser curvature. The patient received esophageal endoscopic mucosal resection, and the Selleckchem GSK1838705A specimen measured 4×2.5×1.5 cm. Microscopically, the esophageal tumor consisted of several polymorphic spindle cells mixed with squamous cells, while the gastric biopsies revealed carcinomatous cells with evident abnormal karyokinesis and polymorphous spindle cells. Immunohistochemically, the resected tumor stained positively for the epithelial markers, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and cytokeratin 19 (CK 19), and the mesenchymal markers, smooth muscle actin (SMA) and vimentin. The gastric lesion stained positively for CK AE1/AE3, actin and vimentin, but was negative for EMA. Both lesions were positive for neuron specific enolase (NSE), demonstrating neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient succumbed seven months after being discharged from hospital.

Antiadalimumab antibodies (AAA) and low trough serum drug concent

Antiadalimumab antibodies (AAA) and low trough serum drug concentrations have been implicated as pre-disposing factors for treatment failure. Aims To assess adalimumab and AAA serum levels, and to examine their association and discriminatory ability with clinical response and serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods We performed a cross-sectional H 89 study using trough sera from adalimumab-treated CD patients. Demographical data,

Montreal classification, treatment regimen and clinical status were recorded. Serum adalimumab, AAA and CRP were measured. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and a multi-variate regression model were performed to find drug and antibody thresholds for predicting disease activity at time of serum sampling. Results One hundred and eighteen trough serum samples were included from 71 patients. High adalimumab trough serum concentration was associated with disease remission (Area Under Curve 0.748, P smaller than 0.001). A cut-off drug level of

5.85 mu g/mL yielded optimal selleck chemical sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio for remission prediction (68%, 70.6% and 2.3, respectively). AAA were inversely related with adalimumab drug levels (Spearman’s r = -0.411, P smaller than 0.001) and when subdivided into categorical values, positively related with disease activity (P smaller than 0.001). High drug levels and stricturing vs. penetrating or inflammatory phenotype, but not AAA levels, independently predicted disease remission in a multivariate logistic regression model. Conclusions Adalimumab drug levels were inversely related to disease activity. High levels of anti-adalimumab antibodies

were positively associated selleck inhibitor with disease activity, but this association was mediated mostly by adalimumab drug levels.”
“Gauge theory plays the central role in modern physics. Here we propose a scheme of implementing artificial Abelian gauge fields via the parametric conversion method in a necklace of superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs) coupled by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The motivation is to synthesize an extremely strong effective magnetic field for charge-neutral bosons which can hardly be achieved in conventional solid-state systems. The dynamic modulations of the SQUIDs can induce effective magnetic fields for the microwave photons in the TLR necklace through the generation of the nontrivial hopping phases of the photon hopping between neighboring TLRs. To demonstrate the synthetic magnetic field, we study the realization and detection of the chiral photon flow dynamics in this architecture under the influence of decoherence. Taking the advantages of its simplicity and flexibility, this parametric scheme is feasible with state-of-the-art technology and may pave an alternative way for investigating the gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits. We further propose a quantitative measure for the chiral property of the photon flow.

panda (Argentina), M papillosa (Ecuador), M patula (French Guya

panda (Argentina), M. papillosa (Ecuador), M. patula (French Guyana), M. paula (Ecuador), M. pisinna (French Guyana), M. quantilla (Ecuador), M. quantula (Ecuador), M. senta (Nicaragua), M. virgata (Ecuador). New records of the following species are given: Manota acuminata Jaschhof and Hippa (Ecuador), M. acutistylus Jaschhof and Hippa (Ecuador, French Guyana), M. diversiseta Jaschhof and Hippa (Ecuador, French Guyana), M. ibanezi Hippa and Huerta (Ecuador, French Guyana, Peru), M. Go 6983 clinical trial inornata Jaschhof & Hippa (French Guyana), M. multisetosa Jaschhof and Hippa (Ecuador), M. parva Jaschhof

and Hippa (Ecuador), M. rotundistylus Jaschhof and Hippa (Ecuador), and M. squamulata Jaschhof and Hippa (Ecuador).”
“The rabbit kidney cell line RK13 has been reported to be contaminated with noncytopathogenic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Persistent infection was

confirmed by demonstrating the stability of virus titers (10(4.6 +/- 0.5) TCID50/ml) and BVDV positive cells (71.9 +/- A 3.12 %), over six successive passages. Based on the “exaltation of Newcastle disease virus” (END) and reverse plaque formation methods, two types of ncp viruses were isolated, END-phenomenon-positive and negative. Isolates, RK13/E+ and RK13/E-, demonstrated (1) differing levels of reproducibility in cell cultures, (2) similar antigenicity against BVDV antisera, (3) identical 5′-UTR region nucleotide sequences, (4) four amino acid differences throughout the genomic open reading frame, and (5) better growth ability in primary rabbit cells than other laboratory selleck strains when inoculated in parallel at an MOI of 0.01. Overall, the BVDV population in RK13 cells consists of at least two different END characteristic quasispecies that are adapted to cultures of rabbit origin, giving rise to naturally attenuated BVDV strains that can be used in vaccine development.”
“Two new anticancer antibiotics of the angucycline class, moromycins A and B (1, 2), along with the known microbial

metabolites saquayamycin B (3) and fridamycin D (4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a culture broth of the terrestrial Streptomzyces sp. KY002. The structures consist of a tetrangomycin core and various C- and O-glycosidically linked deoxysugars. The chemical structures of the new secondary metabolites were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and by mass spectrometry. Givinostat manufacturer Moromycin B (2) showed significant cytotoxicity against H-460 human lung cancer and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.”
“The rapid development of new therapeutic agents that target specific molecular pathways involved in tumour cell proliferation provides an unprecedented opportunity to achieve a much higher degree of biochemical specificity than previously possible with traditional chemotherapeutic anticancer agents. However, the lack of specificity of these established chemotherapeutic drugs allowed a relatively straightforward approach to their use in combination therapies.

“Objective: To investigate the association between satisfa

“Objective: To investigate the association between satisfaction with dental esthetics and quality of life, and esthetics satisfaction

in relation to esthetic evaluations of three panel groups. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two patients (36 women, 16 men; age 18-61 years) with severe malocclusion were treated in Oulu University Hospital. Of these, 38 and 14 patients underwent orthodontic/surgical treatment and orthodontic treatment, respectively. A questionnaire and dental photographs were collected before and after treatment. The 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to measure oral health-related quality of life. Satisfaction with dental esthetics was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale. Dental photographs were presented to three panel groups: 30 laypersons, 30 dental students, and selleck kinase inhibitor 10 orthodontists, who rated the photographs using the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results: Oral health related quality of life (OHIP-14 severity score) and esthetic satisfaction (according to the Visual Analogue Scale) improved after the treatment (P smaller than .001). The most unsatisfied patients reported oral effects more often both before and after treatment. Changes

in oral health related quality of life components of severity, psychological discomfort, and psychological disability correlated positively with the changes in esthetic satisfaction. Orthodontists graded the situation before treatment as worse and the outcome as better than the laypersons; CCI-779 molecular weight the level of grading by dental students fell between these two groups. Conclusion: Improvement in esthetic satisfaction due to the treatment of severe malocclusion improves oral health-related quality of life, particularly by decreasing

psychological discomfort and psychological disability.”
“Background: Bronchopulmonary check details dysplasia (BPD) is one of the main consequences of prematurity, with notably high heritability. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and its main receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of BPD. Objective: To study whether common polymorphisms of the genes encoding VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 are associated with BPD. Methods: In this association study, six tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (tSNPs) for VEGFA and 25 tSNPs for VEGFR2 were genotyped in a prospectively collected, genetically homogeneous discovery population of 160 infants (44 infants with grade 2-3 BPD) born before 30 completed gestational weeks. The replication population of 328 infants included 120 cases of BPD. Results: VEGFR2 SNP rs4576072 was associated with BPD grade 2-3 with a minor allele frequency in 23.9% of the cases compared to 9.1% in controls (p = 0.0005, odds ratio 3.15, 95% CI: 1.62-6.12) in the discovery population. This association was not observed in the more heterogeneous replication population.

This work sets the stage for

developing future implantabl

This work sets the stage for

developing future implantable closed-loop neuro-prosthetic devices for restoration of bladder function. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc.”
“Noroviruses (NoVs) are important pathogens causing epidemic acute gastroenteritis affecting millions of people worldwide. Due to the inability to cultivate NoVs, current NoV vaccine development relies on bioengineering technologies to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) and other subviral particles of NoVs as subunit vaccines. The first VLP vaccine has reached phase II clinical trials and several others are under development in pre-clinical research. Several subviral complexes made from the protruding (P) domains of NoV capsid share common features of easy production, high stability and high immunogenicity and thus are candidates for low cost vaccines. These P domain complexes can also be used as vaccine platforms to present foreign antigens for potential dual vaccines against NoVs and other pathogens. JNK-IN-8 MAPK inhibitor Development of NoV vaccines also faces other challenges, including genetic diversity of NoVs, limit understanding of NoV immunology and evolution, and lack of an efficient NoV animal model for vaccine assessment, which are discussed in this article.”
“Purpose. To examine the clinical implications of change in choroidal neovascularization

(CNV) size on indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in subjects with idiopathic CNV undergoing bevacizumab therapy. DZNeP order Methods. The charts of subjects with an idiopathic CNV treated by a modified PRN regimen with intravitreal bevacizumab over a 12-month period were retrospectively

reviewed. Results. There were 34 subjects included in the analysis. Baseline CNV sizes of less than 1.0 mm(2) on ICG angiography correlated with complete CNV resolution (P = 0.0404), fewer injections delivered (P = 0.0002), and better Snellen visual acuity (P = 0.0098) at 12 months. Subjects that experienced a 33% or more reduction in CNV size on ICG angiography at 2 months had complete CNV resolution (P = 0.0047) and fewer injections (P smaller than 0.0001) at 12 months compared to subjects that did not experience a 33% or more reduction in CNV size on ICG angiography at 2 months. Conclusions. Smaller baseline CNV size on ICG angiography resulted in better visual acuity SBE-β-CD mouse and fewer injections at 12 months, and a reduction of 33% or more in CNV size after 2 months may predict a better clinical course in subjects with idiopathic CNV undergoing bevacizumab therapy.”
“Introduction. Modern particle therapy facilities enable sub-millimeter precision in dose deposition. Here, also ionization chambers (ICs) are used, which requires knowledge of the recombination effects. Up to now, recombination is corrected using phenomenological approaches for practical reasons. In this study the effect of the underlying dose distribution on columnar recombination, a quantitative model for initial recombination, is investigated.