22 Since both DAF-16 and HSF-1 are known to be regulators of seve

22 Since both DAF-16 and HSF-1 are known to be regulators of several genes encoding heat-shock proteins,27,28 it is plausible that these transcription factors promote longevity via the maintenance of proper protein homeostasis in late stages of life.4 Several studies in mouse models have indicated that the role of the IIS as a lifespan and aging regulator is highly conserved from worms to mammals. First, knocking down one copy of the mouse IGF-1 receptor (Igf1r), the closest daf-2 orthologue in mammals,29 results

in longevity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and elevated oxidative stress resistance of the animals compared to their selleck kinase inhibitor litter-mates which carry two Igf1r copies.30 Similarly, the knock-out of the insulin receptor in the adipose tissues of mice (FIRKO mice) leads to extended longevity,31 and mice lacking the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) are also long-lived.32 The findings that the regulation of aging by the insulin and IGF-1 signaling pathways are conserved in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the mouse raised the question of whether these mechanisms also regulate the aging program of humans.

To address that, the activity of the IGF-1 signaling pathway was examined in centenarians (humans who lived more than a century) of different ethnicities. In a seminal study, Suh and colleagues identified mutations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the IGF-1 receptor that are correlated with decreased IGF-1 signaling to be more abundant among Jewish Ashkenazi centenarians compared to control individuals, members of families that do not exhibit extreme longevity.33 Similarly, mutations which hyper-activate FOXO3a (the DAF-16 mammalian orthologue) have been found to be linked with extreme longevity in two centenarian groups Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of distinct ethnicities, Japanese-Hawaiian34 and German.35 IRS2 variants were also reported to correlate with extreme longevity in an Italian subpopulation.36 Together, these studies strongly suggest that the aging-regulating mechanisms downstream of the IIS are conserved from worms to humans. SLOWING AGING PROTECTS MODEL ORGANISMS FROM NEURODEGENERATION-LINKED PROTEOTOXICITY

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The developments in the research of aging and the molecular tools that enable us to alter the aging program of invertebrates and mammals opened the way to address the question of whether aging-associated processes allow protein aggregation to become toxic and initiate neurodegeneration PDK4 late in life. Several proteotoxicity models have been developed in C. elegans, and toxicity assays have been established. If the development of conformational diseases was an aging-independent progressive process, it was expected that slowing aging will show no effect on the rate of proteotoxicity over time. However, if an aging-associated decline in the activity of protective mechanisms exposes the aged organism to proteotoxicity it was anticipated that the alteration of aging protects from proteotoxicity.

06 (95% CI: 1 05–1 08) Age over 35 years, residing in urban area

06 (95% CI: 1.05–1.08). Age over 35 years, residing in urban areas or in the Auckland region, riding in a bunch, using a road bike and history of a crash at baseline predicted a higher risk whereas being overweight or obese, cycling off-road and using lights in the dark lowered the risk. Bicycle commuting, however, did not increase the risk. There were 10 collisions per 1000 person-years or 38 collisions per million hours spent road cycling per year (Table 4). The adjusted HR for one Selleck Talazoparib hour increase in average time spent

cycling each week was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.05–1.12). Due to a very small number of events, “overweight” and “obese” categories were combined and helmet use was excluded in the multivariate models. Residing in urban areas, riding a road bike and having a crash history were associated with an increased risk. There were 50 Modulators crashes per 1000 person-years (Table 5). The risk was lower in university graduates, overweight or obese

cyclists and less experienced cyclists but higher in those who cycled in the dark or in a bunch and those who had a crash history. The effect estimates mentioned above were similar to those obtained from complete case analyses. Potential misclassification of crash outcomes during the linkage process may underestimate the actual incidence rate and may bias the hazard ratios to the null (Appendix A). Likewise, potential misclassification of exposures click here (due to changes over time) may underestimate the risk estimates in most cases (Appendix B). In this study, cyclists experienced 116 crashes attended medically or by police per 1000 person-years, of which 66 occurred on the road and 10 involved a collision also with a motor vehicle. There were 240 on-road crashes and 38 collisions per million hours spent road cycling and the risk increased by 6% and 8% respectively for one hour increase in cycling each week.

After adjusting for all covariates, participants’ age, body mass index, urbanity, region of residence, cycling off road, in the dark or in a bunch, type of bicycle used and prior crash history predicted the crash risk with variations in effect estimates by crash type. This is one of the very few prospective cohort studies involving cyclists and used record linkage to obtain objective information on bicycle crashes from multiple databases. This resource efficient method of data collection was also designed to minimise potential biases associated with loss to follow-up (Greenland, 1977) and self-reports (af Wåhlberg et al., 2010, Jenkins et al., 2002 and Tivesten et al., 2012). While emigration during follow-up is a potential issue in using the linked data, this accounted for less than 2% of the participants resurveyed in 2009 and may not substantially influence outcome occurrences (Kristensen and Bjerkedal, 2010).


Further, participants were informed that they have to fill out three questionnaires for anxiety measurement and that they will be allocated to one of two groups (experimental group vs. control group). At T1, after providing demographic information and written consent, participants filled out the STAI (Laux et al. 1981). Subsequently, participants were familiarized with the machine for the objective measurement of

the BDORT and we tested the individual Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical MVC of the participants. Following this, participants were asked to think of a situation in which they had experienced their anxiety. When participants confirmed that they had a situation in their mind, they had one minute to self-generate this Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical emotion and to indicate the intensity of anxiety on the buy PD-0332991 corresponding LS. Immediately afterwards, participants put their thumb and index finger in the machine for the objective measurement of the BDORT and performed six measurements of the force of the finger musculature (90% MVC) under the emotion of anxiety, with breaks of 30 sec in between each of the six trials. The moment in which the machine generated the pulling force was announced by an acoustic signal 3 sec in advance. From that moment on, participants were asked to hold the ring of index finger and thumb together with their maximum Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical force and go on with self-generating

the emotion. After one trial, participants were asked to relax their fingers in the machine until the next acoustic signal but go on

with self-generating their anxiety in the rest intervals between the trials. Participants completed six trials under the emotion of anxiety. The participants had been randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical after T1. Two weeks after T1, the experimental group received only one single intervention (about 1–2 h) with the wingwave method by a qualified wingwave coach and the control group received no intervention. Further 2 weeks later, at T2, participants were asked to fill out the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical same questionnaires and to perform the same physical task as in T1. The 25 participants in the experimental group were randomly allocated to five different qualified wingwave coaches, who were comparable in relation to years of expertise with the wingwave method, and thus, each wingwave coach conducted an intervention with this method with five participants. The procedure Etomidate for T2 was the same as described above for T1. Data analysis All consent forms containing identifiable information were kept completely confidentially and separately from the completed questionnaires, which were only identifiable by an allocated ID number. First, we assessed participants’ intensity of anxiety (measured by a 9-point LS ranging from no anxiety to most anxiety) in relation to their anxious memory in both groups and for both times of measurement. Therefore, data were analyzed using a 2 (group: experimental group vs.

4 Patients with acute hyponatremia, developing in the course of

4 Patients with acute hyponatremia, developing in the course of ≤12 hours, are more likely to develop symptoms including seizures and coma than those with

chronic hyponatremia (≥3 days).5 Optimal management of hyponatremia is still evolving despite awareness of this electrolyte disturbance since the mid 1900s.4, 5 Most authorities recommend correction of [Na+] in severely hyponatremic and symptomatic patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by 2 to 4 mEq/L within 2 to 4 hours, <12 mEq/L in 24 hours, and to <18 mEq/L in 48 hours.4, 5 Guidelines for infusion rates of hypertonic saline and monitoring procedures have been introduced, most notably the Adrogué-Madias formula.6 Caution in the use of these formulae has been recommended,7 especially Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical given that they were designed for use in static conditions. Retrospective studies have found a risk of physicians underestimating the increase in [Na+] after hypertonic saline therapy, particularly

in the setting of extracellular volume depletion.8, 9 A common criticism of these formulae is that they fail to account for ongoing renal and extrarenal fluid and electrolyte losses. Whereas the formulae apply to static conditions, the dynamic nature of the patient’s Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hospital course, including intravenous drips and gastrointestinal losses, affects the accuracy of [Na+] replacement by Selleck BMN 673 standard calculated deficits. To this effect, more elaborate formulae have been developed7 that better allow the clinician to follow [Na+] levels at close time Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical intervals to adjust medical management. Treatment guidelines published in 2007 evaluated the situations in which

vasopressin receptor antagonists should be considered as alternatives or supplements to standard therapies.4 Conivaptan is one of these alternative therapies.10, 11 Conivaptan is a nonselective V1AR/V2R vasopressin receptor antagonist available in IV form and approved by the FDA to treat euvolemic hyponatremia in 2005 and hypervolemic hyponatremia in 2007. There is a caveat to the use of conivaptan in hypervolemia: although vasopressin receptor antagonism Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical could have potentially beneficial effects in congestive heart failure by decreasing afterload, attenuating coronary vasoconstriction, and potentially diminishing cardiac remodeling, DNA ligase current data do not support its use in this condition.11 On the contrary, the potential exists for increasing portal pressure, resulting in bleeding in the hyponatremia of cirrhosis related to increased splanchnic blood flow. Conivaptan leads to an increase in [Na+] by blocking V2 receptors, thus promoting water excretion while sparing electrolyte excretion.2 Although rapid correction of [Na+] with use of conivaptan has been documented,12 its use is still thought to be a more effective method to treat hyponatremia by virtue of its unique ability to increase solute-free water excretion by the kidneys.

77 Reboxetinc, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor was

77 Reboxetinc, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor was effective and well tolerated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial,78 with a significant reduction in the mean number of panic attacks and phobic symptoms at doses of 6 to 8 mg/day. Other drugs Buspirone in PD failed to show any efficacy even at high doses (60 mg/day).79 Pagoclone, a cyclopyrrolone that is believed to act as a partial agonist, at the GABAA/BZ receptor provided some preliminary evidence in a crossover trial with placebo.80 β-Blockers Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical provided conflicting

results, with some positive small crossover trials, but a negative double-blind trial of propranolol with alprazolam and placebo.81 Initial evidence suggested that gabapentin82 and sodium valproate may be effective in PD, while carbamazepine is not.83 Also Ca-channel blockers have shown mixed results.84 Social anxiety disorder PARP inhibitor Benzodiazepines There is a limited number of controlled studies testing BZs in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. Clonazepam was shown to be effective in one 10-week, double-blind trial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical versus placebo, with 78% of patients responding to an average dosage of 2.4 mg/day.85 Almost 85% of patients had

some response, with 50% having a marked response and 50% having a moderate one. There has been only one double-blind study of alprazolam, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in which Gelernter et a!86 compared alprazolam (mean dose 4.2 mg/day) with phenelzine, cognitive behavioral group therapy, and placebo over a 12-week period. Only 38% of patients on alprazolam were considered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical responders at end point compared with 69% on phenelzine, 24% on cognitive behavioral group therapy, and 20% on placebo. Versiani ct al87 conducted a 12-weck, double-blind study to compare bromazepam (mean dose 21 mg/day) to placebo, with a response rate of 83% of patients on active drug versus 20% of patients

on placebo. Antidepressants Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Only anecdotal evidence supports the efficacy of TCAs for the treatment of social anxiety disorder,88 mainly due to early observations that, patients with atypical depression with marked interpersonal sensitivity and sociophobic features show a better response with MAOIs than TCAs.89 There were three early controlled trials86,90,91 in which phenelzine (up to 90 mg/day) Astemizole was found to be quite effective, with 64% of patients obtaining clinically significant responses, which increased when treatment was extended to 4 months. These results were replicated by Heimbergetal92 in 1998. In a comparison between phenelzine and moclobemide, phenelzine appeared roughly equivalent, but appeared to work faster.91 By week 16, 91% of the phenelzine patients versus 82% of moclobemide patients were nearly asymptomatic, although moclobemide was better tolerated. In the Gelernter et al86 trial, phenelzine was also better than alprazolam in terms of efficacy. As mentioned above, RIMAs have also been studied.

CR formulations provide certain advantages when compared to their

CR formulations provide certain advantages when compared to their IR counterparts. CR formulations can reduce peak to trough fluctuations in the plasma concentration–time profile (compared to multiple-dose administration of an IR product), hence reducing fluctuation-related side effects and/or sub-therapeutic concentrations. CR formulations can increase the exposure over time of drugs with a short elimination half-life, and can be used to target delivery into distal regions

Selleck PI3K inhibitor of the intestine (e.g. colon), or where there is a need for targeted delivery for the treatment of a specific disease, such has Crohn’s disease (Langer, 1990, Rubinstein, 2005 and Thombre, 2005). This can lead to an increased patient compliance. Furthermore, CR formulations can be of use in drug http://www.selleckchem.com/products/SRT1720.html development when the standard IR formulation is not an alternative due to unfavourable pharmacokinetic properties of the drug candidate (Langer, 1990, Rubinstein, 2005 and Thombre, 2005). One of the main goals when developing a CR formulation of a marketed drug is

to achieve, at least, the same exposure as the equivalent dose of their IR counterpart. In general however the relative bioavailability of a CR formulation compared to its IR counterpart is expected to be less than 100% (European Medicines Agency, 2013). Several physiological factors can influence the observed and differences in systemic exposure between IR and CR. A CR formulation is intended to release its drug content within 12–24 h, in contrast the small intestinal transit time is around 2–5 h (Davis et al., 1986, Fallingborg et al., 1989 and Yu et al., 1996). Therefore a majority of the dose should be released into distal regions of the small intestine and the colon, where the residence time in the colon is about 12–24 h (Coupe et al., 1992, Davis et al., 1986 and Fallingborg et al., 1989). The extended release may limit the absorption potential for a drug formulated as CR as, in

general, the distal regions of the intestine provide a less favourable environment for drug absorption. For instance, the reduced surface area available for absorption in the distal region of the GI tract may limit the absorption for poorly permeable inhibitors compounds (Tannergren et al., 2009 and Watts and Lllum, 1997), the intestinal pH increases towards the distal portion of the intestine consequently limiting the aqueous solubility of basic compounds (Fallingborg et al., 1989). Finally, the lack of bile salts, less fluid volume in the colon, differences in the regional permeability and possible degradation by colonic microflora can also have a negative impact on the drug absorption of CR formulations (Lennernas, 2014a, Schiller et al., 2005, Sutton, 2009 and Tannergren et al., 2009).

Because patients with SPD are vulnerable to decompensation during

Because patients with SPD are vulnerable to decompensation during times of stress and may

experience transient episodes of psychosis, they may also benefit, from techniques to facilitate stress reduction (eg, relaxation techniques, exercise, yoga, and meditation). Fortunately, there is evidence that at least some individuals with schizotypal features are likely to seek treatment in times of stress.30 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical In the short, term, brief courses of antipsychotic treatment may be useful if symptoms of psychosis appear. Because cognitive problems are also frequently amenable to concrete, goal-oriented approaches to treatment, SPD patients benefit, from an understanding Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of their cognitive strengths and weaknesses, to help them confront,

and cope with long-standing difficulties in their lives. For example, problems in attention, verbal memory, or organizational skills contribute to failures in educational, occupational, and social endeavors, while reinforcing negative selfimages and increasing performance anxiety. Knowledge of circumscribed cognitive problems allows patients to reframe their difficulties in a more positive manner, and facilitate selection of more realistic personal, educational, and occupational goals. Moreover, specific cognitive deficits are often subject, to at Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical least, partial remediation. For example, standard procedures are available to attenuate deficits in the acquisition, organization, and retrieval of new information (eg, writing information down in a notebook, using appointment, books or planners, and rehearsing new information). Distractibility can be reduced by focusing on one Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical task at a time, in contrast, to switching back and forth between activities.

The Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical value of specific treatments for psychiatric symptoms, however, is less clear, owing to a dearth of outcome studies involving psychotherapy, psychosocial, or psych opharmacological treatments for SPD. Published studies show methodological limitations (eg, small samples, subjects with mixed diagnoses, inadequate controls, and problems with internal validity), or provide outcome data on only limited aspects of the disorder. Nevertheless, it. is clear that few treatment gains are evident from and recent studies, which serves to reaffirm both the chronicity and the complexity of the disorder. This is particularly true of studies that utilized psych odynamically oriented therapy, either alone or in combination with other treatments (eg, group therapy or art therapy) as the primary treatment modality. For example, McGlashan31 studied selleck former inpatients approximately 15 years after treatment, who were given retrospective DSM-III diagnoses. The study followed up former patients with a. variety of diagnoses, including, among others, one third with pure SPD (n=10). Multiple outcome measures were employed.

11 Many medicinal plants exhibit antimicrobial activity for treat

11 Many medicinal plants exhibit antimicrobial activity for treatment of infectious

diseases. Antimicrobials are chemical compounds which either destroy or usually suppress the growth or metabolism of a variety of microscopic or submicroscopic forms of life.12 Essential (volatile) plant oils occur in edible, medicinal and herbal plants, which minimize questions regarding their safe use in food products. Essential oils and their constituents have been widely used as flavouring agents in foods since the earliest http://www.selleckchem.com/products/epacadostat-incb024360.html recorded history and it is well established that many have wide spectra of antimicrobial action.13, 14 and 15 The composition, structure as well as functional groups of the oils play an important role in determining their antimicrobial activity. One of the more dramatic effects of inhibitory action appears in two separate reports where the outer of the two cell membranes of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium disintegrated following exposure to Libraries carvacrol and thymol. 16 Similar observations

were also recorded with these agents using a different strain of E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 17 Yeast and Gram-positive bacteria showed no such changes in cell wall morphology. This was probably due to the solubility of lipo polysaccharides (LPS) in the outer membrane in phenolic-based solvents. Traditional and natural antimicrobial agents with potential are of current value for use in foods as secondary preservatives.18 and 19 Because of greater consumer awareness and concern regarding synthetic chemical additives, foods preserved with natural additives have buy SCR7 become popular. This has led researchers and food processors to look for natural food additives with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity.20 Antimicrobial compounds present in foods can extend shelf-life of unprocessed or processed foods by reducing microbial growth rate or viability.21 Originally added to change or improve taste, spices and herbs can also enhance shelf-life because of their

antimicrobial nature. Some of these same substances are also known to contribute to the self-defense of plants against infectious organisms.22 and 23 Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in more than 100 diseases, including malaria, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, heart disease, much stroke, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer.24 When produced in excess, ROSs can cause tissue injury which can itself cause ROS generation.25 Trianthema decandra (Aizoaceae) is a prostrate, glabrous, succulent, annual herb found almost throughout India. It is commonly known as gadabani in Hindi and vellai sharunai in Tamil. 26T. decandra has been used in various parts of Asia, Africa, Australia and South America for curing various diseases. In African countries the plant has been popular use for skin diseases, wound healing, fever and tooth aches. 27 The juice of leaves is used to treat the black quarter.

In many of the

latter cases, these individuals suffer ver

In many of the

latter cases, these individuals suffer very significant periods of retrograde and anterograde amnesia, such that they do not recall any episodes of the traumatic experience. Fear conditioning Several mechanisms have been put forward to explain how PTSD can develop following TBI. Fear conditioning Autophagy Compound Library models posit that the fear elicited during a traumatic event results in conditioning in which subsequent reminders of the trauma elicit anxiety in response to trauma Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reminders (conditioned stimuli).67 This model proposes that extreme sympathetic arousal at the time of a traumatic event may result in the release of stress neurochemicals (including norepinephrine and epinephrine), mediating an overconsolidation of trauma memories. This proposal is consistent with animal studies that indicate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that epinephrine administration after an aversivc experience enhances fear conditioning.68 Fear conditioning models are also supported by considerable evidence that people with chronic PTSD are hyperresponsive to trauma reminders.69-71 The adrenergic increase occurring Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical after trauma exposure that may contribute to fear conditioning may be reflected in increased sympathetic nervous system activation, including resting heart rate.

Indirect support for this hypothesis comes from multiple longitudinal studies that indicate that elevated heart rate in the acute post-trauma phase is associated with subsequent development of PTSD72; elevated heart rate in the initial days after trauma may reflect stronger conditioning, which can then translate into longer-term PTSD. Although conditioning occurs optimally when one is aware of the contingency between the unconditioned Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and conditioned stimuli,73 conditioning may occur with varying levels of awareness of the contingency between the trauma and the consequences, which may allow for some fear conditioning following TBI. Consistent with this proposal, there is evidence that people can develop PTSD following severe TBI, even though

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical these patients do not recall the trauma and do not suffer intrusive memories of the event.17 These patients display reactivity to reminders of the trauma in the absence of recall of the event; this observation is consistent with fear conditioning explanations of Unrelated Florfenicol PTSD. Further support for the possibility of fear conditioning leading to PTSD after severe TBI patients is evidence of higher heart rates immediately after the trauma in severe TBI patients who develop PTSD (even during dense post-traumatic amnesia) than those who do not develop PTSD.74 Memory reconstruction An alternate mechanism is that TBI patients reconstruct trauma memories in ways that result in a traumatic representation of what occurred during impaired consciousness.

Nucleic acid-based approaches offer several advantages when compa

Ipatasertib research buy nucleic acid-based approaches offer several advantages when compared to treatment with small molecules or proteins. They can be seen as mostly inactive prodrugs, which are activated at the tumor site producing a therapeutically active protein or knocking down a specific target gene. Importantly, nucleic acid targeted delivery systems, preferably also relying in transcriptional targeting, decreasing off-target effects and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical toxicity, and permitting a systemic administration otherwise not feasible with a

therapeutic agent with toxic properties. In parallel with new therapeutic nucleic acid tools, the last two decades brought insight into tumorgenesis in general and unveiled a plethora of therapeutic concepts against cancer (Figure Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 3). The following paragraphs will deal with different antimelanoma approaches based on nucleic acids. Figure 3 Different strategies used in antitumor nucleic acid approaches. RNA-based strategies are commonly used to downregulate agents that are upregulated to favor cell proliferation or migration, such as Bcl-2. Alternatively, double stranded RNA (dsRNA) mimic … Despite the apparent tumor tolerance, humoral and cellular immune responses are naturally generated against tumor antigens. Hence, whether the tumor grows as a result of stealth and nonrecognition or as the result of escape and immunological shaping [128],

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical its recognition by the immune system can still be prompted. Indeed, at a later stage, during the progressive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical growth phase, tumors may become more immune-activating for varies reasons: damage or disruption of surrounding tissue, generation of reactive oxygen species, upregulation of stress protective factors, or death by necrosis or apoptosis. However, at this stage, it is not known whether the tumor still needs to escape immune recognition, as it is unclear that these immune responses

can cause tumor destruction [128]. Therefore, a number of studies have focused in eliciting earlier and suitable tumor recognition by the immune system. In a nucleic acid therapy context, this transliterates into genetic immunization Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or DNA vaccination: the delivery and transcription of a gene encoding antigens or immunestimulatory molecules that elicit heptaminol an immune response. As an example, interleukine-12 (IL-12) has been used and studied in different animal models [104, 105]. IL-12 is originally produced by mononuclear phagocytes and dendritic cells and is responsible for activating NK and CD4+ T cells and inducing the production of high levels of interferon gamma (INF-γ). Interestingly, IL-12 has been described to increase antitumor immune responses [129, 130], and later studies investigated its suitability for a DNA vaccine approach against melanoma [106]. IL-12 effects appeared to be long lasting and efficient against tumor metastases, although not mainly mediated by INF-γ [106].