Of the data from 30 respondents, 28 were used for the analysis as

Of the data from 30 respondents, 28 were used for the analysis as two of the Q sorts had errors in them (such as double entry of a MK-0457 research buy statement number) and had to be rejected. 57 % of the final respondents were male (n = 16) and 43 % were female (n = 12). Results Factor extraction The Q sorts were subjected

to factor analysis using the PQ method software selleck screening library that is available for free download from the internet. Brown (1980), Watts and Stenner (2005) and Watts and Stenner (2012) were consulted during the analysis. The factors were extracted using centroid analysis (Horst’s centroid). The data generated eight factors of which the first three were selected for the analysis due to the following reasons: first, it is a standard procedure to consider factors with Eigen values greater than 1 and having at least two respondents (that is, have at least two defining Q sorts) load on the factor (Brown 1980; Watts and Stenner 2012). Second,

together the three factors explained 51 % of the total variance and had minimal BVD-523 price correlation within them, whereas the latter factors had stronger correlation with the first three factors as well as with one another. Finally, the difference in error in residual variance did not change significantly when considering four factors versus three factors. Each factor had a few Q sorts that especially contributed to defining that particular factor. The respondents corresponding to these defining Q sorts for each factor have been mentioned in the

following section on factor interpretation. The three chosen factors were then subjected to varimax rotation before the software conducted the final analysis. The three factors Florfenicol together had 26 defining Q sorts (two Q sorts loaded individually on two other factors that did not meet the criteria of selecting a factor). The software also presented the factor array table (or a model Q sort). A factor array table contains the statement scores for each factor based on the weighted average of its defining Q sorts (Table 1). Simply put, a factor array represents the statement scores on a factor that a Q sort would assign if it were to load a hundred percent on that factor. The statement scores in this table were used in the final interpretation. Taking a conservative approach, distinguishing statements (that is, statements which were highlighted in the analysis as being significant to the interpretation of a particular factor) at p < 0.01 were also used in the interpretation, even though they might have had lower statement scores. Following the same logic, consensus statements (that is, statements that did not help in distinguishing among the three factors) at p < 0.01 were excluded from the interpretation of individual factors, even though some of them had higher statement score.

When the capsule operon of 307 14 nonencapsulated was replaced by

When the capsule operon of 307.14 nonencapsulated was replaced by that of 307.14 encapsulated the expression Selleckchem Foretinib of an 18C capsule was acquired as determined by serotyping and electron microscopy (Figure 1D). We named this PF-6463922 mutant 307.14 cap + (Table 1). However, expression was lower than in the natural encapsulated strain: The mean thickness of the polysaccharide

capsule of 307.14 encapsulated was 137 nm and for 307.14 cap + was 25 nm. Likewise, replacing the capsule operon of 307.14 encapsulated with that of 307.14 nonencapsulated caused it to lose capsule as shown by electron microscopy (Figure 1E) and it became nontypeable by Quellung reaction. We named this mutant 307.14 cap- (Table 1). The six other SNPs identified by whole genome sequencing were not transferred (confirmed by sequencing, see Additional file 1: Table S1) confirming that the SNP in cpsE is sufficient alone to change the capsule

phenotype. Effect of loss of capsule expression on growth Comparison of growth in vitro in a chemically defined medium (CDM) showed that the wild type 307.14 nonencapsulated, as well as the nonencapsulated laboratory mutant 307.14Δcps::Janus, had a clear growth advantage over 307.14 encapsulated (Figure 2). The lag phase of growth was shorter and the maximal OD600nm was higher Selleckchem BIBW2992 for both of the nonencapsulated variants

than the encapsulated (replicates shown in Additional file 1: Figure S1). Figure 2 Nonencapsulated variant of strain 307.14 has an advantage over the encapsulated variant in growth. Growth was measured in vitro in CDM with 5.5 mM glucose by determining OD600nm over 10 hours. Results show a representative of three independent experiments (see Additional file 1: Figure S1 for replicates). Wild type 307.14 encapsulated (●), wild type 307.14 nonencapsulated (■), laboratory mutant 307.14Δcps`:Janus, nonencapsulated (▲). Effect of loss of capsule on adherence and invasion For 307.14 encapsulated 1% of the inoculum adhered compared to 115% for 307.14 nonencapsulated. The Aprepitant relative value of adherent nonencapsulated 307.14 bacteria was presumably greater than 100% due to growth of the bacteria during the assay. This represents a 117-fold greater adherence for the nonencapsulated phenotype compared to the encapsulated (Figure 3). Invasion of the epithelial cells was also greater for the nonencapsulated phenotype: 0.22% for 307.14 nonencapsulated and 0.0012% for 307.14 encapsulated, a difference of 183-fold reflecting the difference in adherence. Figure 3 Adherence of the two wild type variants to Detroit 562 human epithelial cells. Means from three independent experiments, each performed in triplicate, are shown.

e nature reserves allow minimal human interferences (Han 2000; G

e. nature reserves allow minimal human Kinase Inhibitor Library solubility dmso interferences (Han 2000; Grumbine and Xu 2011). Yet,

in practice, this concept has not worked well given the situation in rural China where large indigenous populations live in and around many Chinese reserves (Harkness 1998; Han 2000; Jim and Xu 2003; Jiang 2005), and the complex physical mix of public, community and privately managed lands within many Chinese nature reserves (Han 2000; personal observations). The Yachang Reserve is no exception. By Chinese standards, the Yachang Region is remote and sparsely populated (15 persons per km2; Li et al. 2007). But this translates into more than 600 families and nearly 3,000 residents residing within the reserve, and double that amount in immediate adjacent areas. Community and private lands dotted within the reserve. These residents are mostly of the Zhuang and Yao ethnic minority groups. find more The income level of these residences is around ¥1,000 RMB (~$150) per year, about equal to

the Chinese official poverty line (The Comprehensive Scientific Investigation Team of Guangxi Yachang Orchid Nature Reserve 2007). The county where the Yachang Reserve is located, as is the case of many counties in Karst dominated areas of China, is a national poverty county, a designation given by the Chinese central government for its extreme low average income (Zhangliang Chen, People’s Government of Guangxi, personal communications). The limestone landscapes have CP-690550 supplier fostered high levels of biological diversity, especially among orchids and a few other plant groups (Editorial Board of Biodiversity in the Karst Area of Southwest Guangxi 2011), but these landscape features also lead to limited arable land and low income for residents, thus promoting poverty. Ideally, any conservation strategy in this Sinomenine context must also include improving local income by allowing sustainable uses of important biotic resources. Can massive commercial cultivation help to conserve threatened species? Medicinal orchids are among the group of species whose wild existence is threatened by consumptive use in China. Encouraging artificial cultivation of plants or farming of animals to meet the market demand

and thus reduce wild-collecting pressure, is a national conservation strategy adopted by the Chinese wildlife protection agencies (Staff of the China State Forestry Administration, personal communication). The efficacy of this measure has been under intense debate (Kirkpatrick and Emerton 2009; Conrad and Conrad 2010). Regardless, motivated by market demands in the face of depleted natural resources, mass artificial cultivation of Dendrobium orchids, including that of D. catenatum, using modern in vitro seed germination and tissue culture techniques, was developed recently. This mass production, mostly done in industrial shade houses and currently estimated to be around 500 ha in area with a total market value of ¥250 billion RMB (US $39 billion), seems to have satisfied most of the market demand (Fig.

The yak has great potential as an “energy-saving” animal as many

The yak has great potential as an “energy-saving” animal as many researchers around the world aim to find “low carbon” livestock. The identification of inhibitors of methanogenesis is currently being explored. However, the successful use AZD1390 ic50 of these agents is dependant upon having a better understanding of the hydrogenotrophic microbial community in the rumen, which must be promoted in the absence of the methanogenic archaea for production benefits to occur. As a potential “low carbon” animal, yaks are adapted to a cold and high altitude environment and are reported to produce less methane than cattle per unit body weight [9]. Thus, the yak, which is well

adapted to its environment, may harbor a rumen methanogen

population that produces less methane than cattle. Therefore, it is necessary to study the hydrogenotrophic microbial community by comparing the rumen methanogen diversity of yaks and cattle. The phylogenetic analysis of bacterial diversity in yak has been studied previously [11, 12], whereas the methanogen diversity in yak has yet to be investigated. This study aims to generate new knowledge pertaining to the rumen methanogens of the yak and will contribute to the identification of the microbiology that constitutes a low-methane emitting ruminant animal. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the diversity of rumen methanogens from the yak. Results Sequence similarity analysis In the yak 16S rRNA gene clone library, a total of 227 clones were examined and 18 clones were identified as chimeras and excluded from further analyses. The remaining 209

clones revealed 134 VE-822 clinical trial unique sequences (Table 1). Of these, 109 sequences belonged to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Lineage C (TALC), with only 85.5% to 89.2% identity to Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis. The remaining 25 sequences were related to archaeal taxa from the orders Methanobacteriales, buy BMN 673 Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. PAK5 Of these 25 sequences, 20 belonged within the order Methanobacteriales and were broken down as follows: 12 sequences were 97.0% to 98.3% related to Methanobrevibacter millerae, four sequences had 96.7% to 98.9% identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, and four sequences were 96.2% to 97.5% related to Methanobrevibacter smithii. Only one sequence was related to methanogens from the order Methanomicrobiales, with 99.8% identity to Methanomicrobium mobile, whereas four sequences belonged to the order Methanosarcinales with only 91.7% to 92.9% identity to Methanimicrococcus blatticola. Table 1 Similarity values of rumen methanogens from yak and cattle from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China Yak Cattle 16S Sequence Clonesa OTU# Nearest Taxon % Seq ID 16S Sequence Clonesa OTU# Nearest Taxon % Seq ID QTPYAK1 5 74 Mms. luminyensis 88.2 QTPC1 2 82 Mbb. millerae 98.6 QTPYAK2 1 74 Mms. luminyensis 88.1 QTPC2 1 82 Mbb.

When the magnetic field is adjusted to 5 and 7 T (the blue and th

When the magnetic field is adjusted to 5 and 7 T (the blue and the green line), respectively, E7080 research buy the absolute value of the current continues to decrease at the same voltage conditions. It is noteworthy that from Figure 5a, we can clearly see that ΔI from 1 to 3 T is larger than that from 3 to 7 T where the voltage is −4 V. That is to say, the I-V of Ag2Te CP673451 sample is more sensitive at low magnetic field. This phenomenon reveals that the Ag2Te nanowires are suitable for low magnetic field sensor.

In addition, the magneto-resistance curves under different temperature conditions are illustrated in Figure 5b. The MR was calculated as MR = (ρ H  − ρ 0)/ρ 0. The MR (Δρ/ρ) increases when the magnetic field increases gradually. At each temperature, the curves for the sample

look very similar. But at T = 5 K, MR rises faster slightly than other higher temperature conditions. As shown in the black curve, the Δρ/ρ value is centered at 11.79% when the magnetic field is 4 T at a temperature of 300 K. When the temperature decreased at 5 K, keeping the same magnetic field find more of 4 T, the Δρ/ρ value increased to 38.35% (purple curves). These results experimentally suggest that the Δρ/ρ of Ag2Te NWs increased with the temperature decreasing gradually at the same magnetic field. Here, we also found a novel phenomenon that the magneto-resistance crosses over from a linear to a quadratic dependence on H (T) at the place of 4 T approximately. The Δρ/ρ shows a linear dependence on the low magnetic field (Figure 5b), but from the slope, we can notice that Δρ/ρ increases nonlinearly with increasing temperature at high H(T), which is different from the previous report [18, 19]. We deduced that this novel phenomenon was caused by the nanostructure of the sample. Figure 5 I-V characteristics of the Ag 2 Te nanowires

at room temperature and normalized magneto-resistance for Ag 2 Te nanowires. (a) I-V characteristics of the Ag2Te nanowires at room temperature under a series of magnetic field, B = 1, 3, 5, and 7 T; (b) the normalized magneto-resistance Δρ (T, H) / ρ (T, H) for Ag2Te nanowires as a function of magnetic field H at a series of temperatures T = 5, 10, 20, 40, LY294002 80, 160, and 300 K. Temperature-dependent MR of zero field (R 0) and field (R H ) resistivity is shown in Figure 6. The MR was calculated as MR = (R H − R 0) / R 0, and the sample behavior was measured in temperature from 300 to 4 K. It is noteworthy that the resistivity measured by the magnetic field of 9 T becomes larger with the increasing magnetic field, and the field resistivity curve is peaked with a strong maximum at 66 K exhibited by the red line. Then, the product exhibits a steep decline of the resistivity with increasing temperature as illustrated in the figure.

Br J Sports Med 2008, 42:567–73 PubMedCrossRef 30


Br J Sports Med 2008, 42:567–73.PubMedCrossRef 30.

Belobrajdic DP, McIntosh GH, Owens JA: A high-whey-protein diet reduces body weight gain and alters insulin sensitivity relative to red meat in wistar rats. J Nutr 2004, 134:1454–8.PubMed 31. Pichon L, Potier M, Tome D, et al.: High-protein diets Linsitinib order containing different milk protein fractions differently influence energy intake and adiposity in the rat. Br J Nutr 2008, 99:739–48.PubMedCrossRef 32. Anthony TG, McDaniel BJ, Knoll P, et al.: Feeding meals containing soy or whey protein after exercise stimulates protein synthesis and translation initiation in the skeletal muscle of male rats. J Nutr 2007, 137:357–62.PubMed 33. Inkielewicz-Stepniak I, Czarnowski W: Oxidative stress parameters in rats exposed to fluoride and caffeine. Food Chem Toxicol 2010, 48:1607–11.PubMedCrossRef 34. Inkielewicz-Stepniak I: Impact of fluoxetine on liver damage in rats. Pharmacol Rep 2011, 63:441–7.PubMed 35. Newman JE, Hargreaves M, Garnham A, et al.: Effect of creatine ingestion on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003, 35:69–74.PubMedCrossRef 36. Hickner RC, Tanner CJ, Evans CA, et al.: L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded

exercise test. Med Sci Selleckchem XMU-MP-1 Sports Exerc 2006, 38:660–6.PubMedCrossRef 37. Afkhami-Ardekani M, Shojaoddiny-Ardekani A: Effect nearly of vitamin c on blood glucose, serum lipids & serum insulin in type 2 diabetes patients. Indian J Med Res 2007, 126:471–4.PubMed 38. Liu Z, Jeppesen PB, Gregersen S, et al.: Dose- and glucose-dependent effects of amino acids on insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets and clonal ins-1e beta-cells. Rev Diabet Stud 2008, 5:232–44.PubMedCrossRef 39. Urista CM, Fernandez RA, Rodriguez FR, et al.: Review: Production and functionality of active peptides from milk. Food Sci Technol Int 2011, 17:293–317.CrossRef Competing interest The authors declare no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions RGT Chk inhibitor assisted with: 1) data collection; 2) data analysis; 3) statistical analysis; 4) preparing manuscript. TEC assisted with: 1) intellectual contribution throughout experiments; 2) manuscript preparation. SRH Performed histological examination of kidney and liver tissues and provided intellectual contribution throughout experiments. JRC performed leucine analysis. FWB assisted in: 1) study design; 2) intellectual contribution throughout experiments; 3) manuscript preparation. MDR procured grant funding; assisted in: 1) study design; 2) data collection and analysis; 3) preparing manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction Disruption in the balance between free radical production and scavenging capability contributes to the accumulation of oxidative damage in muscle tissues.

More work should be done in the future to enrich the theory of tu

More work should be done in the future to enrich the theory of tumor blood supply pattern, which may provide reasonable theoretic evidence for tumor anti-angiogenesis. In the current study, we identified that the positive rate of VM in LSCC is 21.67%, which is different from other tumors, such as inflammatory and ductal breast carcinoma (7.9%), ovarian carcinoma(36.4%), melanoma(5.3%), rhabdomyosarcoma(18.8%), and synovial sarcoma(13.6%). That is probably due to different tissue origin and judgment GF120918 criteria variable across GSK2118436 supplier labs. More investigation of a larger sample is needed to illustrate the mechanism of VM formation in different tissue. Previous research

has demonstrated VM existed in most tumors, being a functional microcirculation [24, 25], ACP-196 mouse correlated with poor clinical outcomes among tumor patients [14, 26]. The majority of studies in vitro have focused on the mechanism, until recently. However, relatively few studies have interpreted VM’s influence on a tumor’s overall biological behavior using a large sample. In addition, there still no data which describes a significant difference between VM and other patterns of blood supply. In this study, we compared the significance of clinicopathology and prognosis between VM and EDV. This retrospective study of 203

LSCC patients showed that VM is associated with lymph node metastasis, pTNM stage and histopathology grade in LSCC. While EDV correlated with tumor location, pTNM stage, T stage and distant metastasis. This indicated check details that both VM and

EDV played an important role in tumor progression. Our study showed that VM is related to local lymph node metastasis intimately, which is an important feature and a key prognostic factor of LSCC[27]. It is different from a previous study[28], which reported that patients with breast carcinomas engaged in VM and had a higher rate of distant metastasis (liver, lung, and bone), but failed to find a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis status. In our study of 203 LSCC, only 9.36% appeared to have distant metastasis, while 74.38% developed local lymph node metastasis. We deduced from this that VM in LSCC may own the specific ability to facilitate metastasis by some modality. More studies are warranted to elucidate the effects of VM which use a larger sample on local lymph node metastasis in different types of tumors. VM in tumors plays an important role in tumor aggression [5]. We also found VM is more common in the advanced stage of LSCC than in the primary stage. However, these results are different than the observations from a breast cancer study by Shirakawa et al[28], which showed that the VM group did not exhibit a more advanced pTNM stage than the non-VM group.

The Nusselt number can

be expressed as: (32) The heat tra

The Nusselt number can

be expressed as: (32) The heat transfer coefficient is computed from: (33) The thermal conductivity of the nanofluid is defined by: (34) Substituting Equations 33 and 34 into Equation 32, the local Nusselt number along the left wall can be written as: (35) The average Nusselt number is determined from: (36) In order to perform a grid independence test and validate the Lattice Boltzmann model proposed in this work, we used another selleck screening library square enclosure, because there are exact solutions for this square enclosure. The left wall is kept at a high constant temperature (T H), and the right wall is kept at a low constant temperature (T C). The boundary conditions of the other walls (top wall and bottom wall) are all adiabatic, and the other conditions are the same as those in Figure 1. As shown in Table 2, the grid independence test is performed in a square enclosure using successively sized grids, 128 × 128, 192 × 192, 256 × 256, and 320 × 320 at Ra = 1 × 105, Pr = 0.7. It can be seen from Table 2 that there

is a bigger difference between the result obtained with grid sizes 128 × 128 and 192 × 192 and the result available from the literature [30] than when compared with the result obtained with grids 256 × 256 and 320 × 320. In learn more addition, the result with grid 256 × 256 and the result with grid 320 × 320 are very close. In order to accelerate the numerical simulation, a grid size of 256 × 256 was chosen as a suitable

one which can guarantee a grid-independent solution. Table 2 Comparison of the mean Nusselt numbers with different grids ( Ra = 1 × 10 5 , Pr = 0.7) Physical properties 128 × 128 192 × 192 256 × 256 320 × 320 Literature[30] Nu avg 4.5466 4.5251 4.5220 4.5218 4.5216 In order to validate the Lattice Boltzmann model proposed in this work, the temperature distribution at midsections of the enclosure at Ra = 1 × 105, Pr = 0.7 is compared with the numerical results from Khanafer et al. [31] and experimental results from Krane et al. (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate [32] in Figure 2. It can be seen that the results of this paper have a good agreement with those numerical [31] and experimental [32] results. They are closer to the experimental [32] than the numerical [31] results. In addition, the Nusselt number results at different Rayleigh numbers of this paper are compared with other Y-27632 supplier published literature listed in Table 3, and it can be seen that the results are in good agreement. Figure 2 Temperature distribution at horizontal midsections-sections of the enclosure ( Ra = 10 5 , Pr = 0.7). Table 3 Comparison of average Nusselt numbers with other published data ( Pr = 0.7)   Ra = 103 Ra = 104 Ra = 105 Ra = 106 Present work 1.118 2.247 4.522 8.808 D’Orazio et al. [33] 1.117 2.235 4.504 8.767 De Vahl Davis [34] 1.118 2.243 4.519 8.800 Khanafer et al. [31] 1.118 2.245 4.522 8.

The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines recommend [11] that a do

The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines recommend [11] that a dobutamine infusion should be administered in the event of myocardial dysfunction as indicated by elevated cardiac filling pressures and low cardiac output or ongoing signs of hypoperfusion, despite achieving adequate intravascular volume and adequate MAP. Acute kidney injury in surgical sepsis In patients with surgical sepsis, particular attention should always be paid to acute kidney injury (AKI). A prospective observational institutional study recently published, has shown

that AKI frequently complicates surgical sepsis, and serves as a powerful predictor of hospital mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock. During the 36-month study period ending on December 2010, 246 patients treated for surgical sepsis were evaluated in the study. Tucidinostat cost AKI occurred in 67% of all patients, and 59%, 60%, and 88% of patients had sepsis, surgical sepsis, and septic shock, respectively. Patients with AKI had fewer ventilator-free and intensive care unit selleck free days and a decreased likelihood of discharge to home. Morbidity and mortality increased with severity of AKI, and AKI of any severity was found to be a strong predictor of hospital mortality (odds ratio, 10.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.28Y87.35; p = 0.03) in surgical sepsis [81]. Source control Initial operation The

timing and adequacy of source control are of outmost importance in the management of intra-abdominal sepsis, as late and/or incomplete procedures may have severely adverse consequences on outcome. Source control encompasses all measures undertaken to eliminate the source of infection, reduce the bacterial inoculum and correct or control anatomic derangements to restore normal physiologic function [82, 83]. This generally involves drainage

Mephenoxalone of abscesses or infected fluid collections, debridement of necrotic or infected tissues and definitive control of the source of contamination. It is well known that inadequate source control at the time of the initial operation has been associated with increased mortality in patients with severe intra-abdominal infections [84]. Early control of the septic source can be achieved using both operative and non-operative techniques. An operative intervention remains the most viable therapeutic strategy for managing intra-abdominal sepsis in critical ill patients. The initial aim of the surgical treatment of peritonitis is the elimination of bacterial contamination and inflammatory substances and prevention or reduction, if possible, of fibrin formation. Generally, the surgical source control employed depends on the anatomical source of infection, the Selleck PHA-848125 degree of peritoneal inflammation and generalized septic response, and the patient’s pre-morbid condition. Surgical source control entails resection or suture of a diseased or perforated viscus (e.g. diverticular perforation, gastroduodenal perforation), removal of the infected organ (e.g.

J Bone Miner Res 18:312–318PubMedCrossRef 10 Johansson H, Oden A

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the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES). Osteoporos Int 4:277–282PubMedCrossRef 12. Johansson C, Black D, Johnell O, Oden A, Mellstrom D (1998) Bone mineral density is a predictor of survival. Calcif Tissue Int 63:190–196PubMedCrossRef 13. Fujiwara S, Kasagi F, Yamada M, Kodama K (1997) Risk factors for hip fracture in a Japanese cohort. J Bone Miner Res HSP990 datasheet NU7026 supplier 12:998–1004PubMedCrossRef 14. Schott AM, Cormier C, Hans D, Favier F, Hausherr E, Dargent-Molina P,

Delmas PD, Ribot C, Sebert JL, Breart G, Meunier PJ (1998) How hip and whole-body bone mineral density predict hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS Prospective Study. Osteoporos Int 8:247–254PubMedCrossRef 15. Gluer CC, Eastell R, Reid DM, Felsenberg D, Roux C, Barkmann R, Timm W, Blenk T, Armbrecht G, Stewart A, Clowes J, Thomasius FE, Kolta S (2004) Association of five quantitative ultrasound devices and bone densitometry with osteoporotic vertebral fractures in a population-based sample: the OPUS Study. J Bone Miner Res 19:782–793PubMedCrossRef 16. Sanders KM, Pasco JA, Ugoni AM, Nicholson GC, Seeman

E, Martin TJ, Skoric B, Panahi S, Kotowicz MA (1998) The exclusion of high trauma fractures may underestimate the prevalence of bone fragility fractures in the community: the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 13:1337–1342PubMedCrossRef 17. Anderson GL, Manson J, Wallace R, Lund B, Hall D, Davis S, Shumaker S, Wang CY, Stein E, Prentice RL (2003) Implementation of the Women’s Health Initiative study design. Ann Epidemiol 13:S5–S17PubMedCrossRef 18. Siris E, Miller P, Barrett-Connor E, Abbott T, Sherwood L, Berger M (1998) Design of NORA, the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Tenoxicam Program: a longitudinal US registry of see more postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 8(Suppl 1):S62–S69PubMed 19. Haentjens P, Johnell O, Kanis JA, Bouillon R, Cooper C, Lamraski G, Vanderschueren D, Kaufman JM, Boonen S (2004) Evidence from data searches and life-table analyses for gender-related differences in absolute risk of hip fracture after Colles’ or spine fracture: Colles’ fracture as an early and sensitive marker of skeletal fragility in white men. J Bone Miner Res 19:1933–1944PubMedCrossRef 20. EuroQol Group (1990) EuroQol—a new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy 16:199–208CrossRef 21. Ware JE, Kosinski M, Dewey JE (2000) How to score version 2 of the SF-36 Health Survey. Quality Metric, Lincoln 22.