This is attributed to two different homopolymerization reaction mechanisms, activated monomer (AM) and activated chain end APR-246 clinical trial (ACE), the former dominating at high temperature and the latter at low temperature. The effects of these homopolymerization reactions on the network and nanostructure of the nanocomposite are discussed, the important
aspect emerging being that the ACE mechanism is the one that most significantly enhances the exfoliation process. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 1040-1047, 2009″
“We have studied copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules deposited on a clean gold surface via synchrotron radiation photoemission. The persistent appearance of Au4f surface core-level emission in a series of depositions
suggests columnar growth of the adsorbed molecules covering only one-fifth of the surface. Molecular adsorption reduced the line intensity of emission from the Au surface slightly and also produced a shortened core-level shift, which demonstrates weakened s-d hybridization of the surface band. Moreover, manifestation of excess charge in the C1s core, along with an induced component in the Au4f core, indicates that charge polarization occurred at the organic/metal contact. The interface Vorinostat datasheet introduces an electronic state 1.09 eV below the Fermi level. Further analysis reveals that only the carbon atoms in the benzene rings are affected upon adsorption, suggesting that the molecular plane lies flat on the surface without changing the nominal bent configuration.”
series of 0-3 composites of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and nyton77 was prepared with PZT volume fractions between 0.1 and 0.6 using the combined method of solvent casting and hot pressing. Depending upon the volume fraction of PZT, the relative permittivities of the composites were found to be in the range of 200-2000 when measured at the highest practically possible temperature of 200 degrees C. As PZT volume fraction increases, both STA-9090 clinical trial the relative permittivity and the piezoelectric constant d(33) increase. The best combination of electrical properties and flexibility was obtained in 0.5 PZT volume fraction composites. At this composition, the remanent polarization P, of composites was up to 1000 mC/m 2 at the applied electric field of 40 MV/m and it increased with an increase in temperature. The highest piezoelectric strain coefficient d33 was obtained at 17 pC/N in 0.6 PZT volume fraction composites. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 1048-1054, 2009″
“The local structure of a Zn, Sn codoped In(2)O(3) thin film grown on c-plane sapphire by pulsed-laser deposition was examined by polarization-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy.