[16]), was designed to have intrinsic eddy-current compensation

[16]), was designed to have intrinsic eddy-current compensation. However, this sequence is less suitable for cardiac imaging due to a lack of velocity compensation resulting in a higher likelihood of intravoxel dephasing caused by myocardial motion during the diffusion pulses. Secondly, concomitant gradient fields are unbalanced in Doramapimod clinical trial the TRSE sequence (whereas they are cancelled out in the bipolar spin-echo sequence due to the symmetry). Lastly, the addition of an extra refocusing pulse makes the sequence

more susceptible to RF pulse imperfections. Although adjustments to the gradients and RF pulses can be made to reduce concomitant gradient fields and RF pulse imperfections, the lack of velocity compensation in the TRSE sequence leads to signal loss in the beta-catenin inhibitor presence of motion. Such signal loss cannot easily be corrected by retrospective methods, and thus, the TRSE sequence is left out of the comparison in this study. One aim of this study is to investigate the higher-order spatial effects of eddy currents and their time-varying nature [17], [18], [19], [20] and [21] in the unipolar and bipolar sequences. Correction of higher-order effects have led to improved image quality in previous studies [20], [21] and [22]. However, the temporal dynamics and relative magnitudes of higher-order effects among different sequences have received less attention. The reason for measuring higher-order effects

is that unlike linear offsets, dynamic higher-order phase variations cannot be corrected for by standard pre-emphasis techniques ([23] and references therein). It is possible to characterize eddy-current induced phase offsets at very high temporal resolution using NMR field probes [24], [25] and [26]. A dynamic field camera with 16 NMR probes is capable of measuring Palmatine eddy-current phases up to 3rd spatial order. This technique has recently been used to monitor such phase contributions with first applications to diffusion imaging [20] and phase-contrast imaging [27]. The purpose of the present study is to use a field-monitoring approach to measure, characterize and

correct for linear and higher-order eddy-current effects in the unipolar and bipolar sequences. Eddy currents are not patient-specific and the field-monitoring approach potentially allows calibration scans to be used for the correction of temporal and higher-order spatial effects during reconstruction for any organ imaged with a given sequence. As such, this study has been restricted to a phantom study to minimize the confounding effects of additional artifacts, including bulk motion, as found in in vivo studies. All scans were performed on a 3T Philips Achieva TX system (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) operated in a gradient mode that provides 63 mT/m maximal strength and 100 mT/m/ms slew rate. Unipolar and bipolar diffusion sequence diagrams are shown in Fig. 1a and b.

Similarly, another major mediator in chronic inflammatory process

Similarly, another major mediator in chronic inflammatory processes is nitric oxide

(NO ), which is produced by liver parenchymal and Daporinad non-parenchymal cells from l-arginine via nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NO is considered to exert a hepatoprotective action against tissue injury and cytotoxic effects due to invading microorganisms, parasites and tumor cells. However, many situations that cause uncontrolled, prolonged and/or massive production of NO by inducible NOS (iNOS) may result in liver damage, leading to inflammation and even tumor development [26]. iNOS produces much larger amounts of NO and has been detected in many human tumors, such as breast cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer, and colorectal cancer [27], [28], [29] and [30]. A considerable amount of compelling evidence suggests that the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression or activity is important not only for treatment of chronic inflammation, but also for the prevention of cancer [13], [31] and [32]. Therefore, suppression of iNOS and COX-2 induction during cancer progression is recognized as an important and commonly accepted approach to effectively GPCR Compound Library clinical trial inhibit tumor promotion. These biomarkers were highly expressed in liver of DEN/2-AAF-treated animals. Treatment with NX

remarkably suppressed COX-2 and iNOS in DEN/2-AAF-induced animals, suggesting a plausible anti-tumor promotion role of NX in vivo. These results agree with earlier studies that have been shown NX to inhibit prostate, lung and skin cancer cell proliferation by modulation of COX-2 and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II iNOS inhibition [8], [12] and [13]. PCNA, is a 36 kDa nuclear protein and

its expression in the nucleus is associated with the DNA synthesis phase of cell cycle, and serves as a biomarker of proliferation [20]. Earlier studies have reported that PCNA is highly associated with DEN/2-AAF-induced liver carcinogenesis, which could be detected immunohistochemically [33]. In our study, we found that NX reduced the hepatic PCNA expression in DEN/2-AAF treated rats. Cell cycle regulation is one important mechanism of anti-proliferation in cancers [34]. In the present study, we investigated the cell cycle distribution after treatment with NX and found accumulation of liver cancer cells at G1 phase of cell cycle. Similarly, earlier reports with skin and prostate cancer cells showed NX treatment arrested cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase [13]. Studies have also suggested that regulation of cyclin activity plays a key role in cell cycle progression at different phases, in which CDKs are negatively regulated by a group of functionally related proteins known as CDK inhibitors [24]. Cip/p21 binds and inhibits the cyclins E1, D1 and Adependent kinases, regulating the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle.

Three types of mixing can be distinguished First there is the in

Three types of mixing can be distinguished. First there is the initial mixing of different groundwater types withdrawn over the well screen length at the ATES startup. This process determines the initial composition of the ATES water. In presence of vertical heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity, this hydraulic conductivity will determine the contribution of the different groundwater types to the mixed ATES water. Secondly there is

a continuous inflow and replacement of a portion of the ATES water by ambient groundwater. The importance of this mixing type is determined by the regional groundwater flow rate, compared to the ATES discharge and recharge rate. Again Ivacaftor manufacturer the hydraulic conductivity over the depth range is important because it will determine the flow paths of the inflowing ambient water. Thirdly, mixing will occur at the interface between the injected mixed water from the ATES and the surrounding groundwater during injection by dispersion processes. These processes will be especially important when there is sufficient contrast between the composition of the mixed water in the ATES and the ambient groundwater (Dinkla et al., 2012). In addition to these three types, the water balance of the ATES system is also important for mixing.

A yearly imbalace between extraction and injection will lead to some extra initial mixing each year. Based on literature, ATES may have an impact on groundwater quality in two different ways. On the one PARP inhibitor hand, extraction, mixing and injection of shallow groundwater with deeper groundwater over a large well screen length can have an important influence on groundwater quality. For example, mobilization of trace elements and organic carbon can be induced by changing the natural redox conditions and contaminants can be introduced in deeper pristine groundwater. The temperature changes (<15 °C) handled in current ATES systems, on the other hand, seem to have hardly any effect on the chemistry of the main chemical constituents in the groundwater. But

redox sensitivity to small changes in temperature (Prommer and Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) Stuyfzand, 2005) and especially the increased mobility of arsenic observed in laboratory experiments (Bonte et al., 2013b) show that further research and monitoring are necessary. The groundwater chemistry around seven ATES installations in the northern part of Belgium (Flanders) is evaluated (Fig. 2). The selected ATES systems are located in several key aquifers, which represent major groundwater resources for the region. In Flanders, the main chemical constituents of groundwater in the cold and warm wells of all ATES systems are reported at least once a year to the environmental authorities in the context of their environmental permit.

5), but with reduced signal in adulthood

5), but with reduced signal in adulthood check details ( Supplementary Fig. S5). FoxP1 was similarly expressed in layers V and VI, and also in layers II and III ( Fig. 5 and Supplementary Fig. S5). CNTNAP2 mRNA signal was observed in all layers from P0 to adulthood ( Fig. 5 and Supplementary Fig. S5). ROBO1 was expressed in layers II–VI at P0 ( Fig. 5), and layers III and V in adulthood ( Supplementary Fig. S5). ROBO1 was more highly expressed in layer V compared with other layers from P0 to adulthood ( Fig.

5 and Supplementary Fig. S5). KIAA0319 mRNA signal was observed in layers II–VI at P0 ( Fig. 5), but only a weak signal observed in layers V and VI in adulthood ( Supplementary Fig. S5). DCDC2 mRNA signal was observed Selumetinib mw in layer V at P0 and adulthood, although the signal was very weak ( Fig. 5 and Supplementary Fig. S5). In this study, expression patterns of human speech- and reading-related genes were examined at P0 and adulthood in the common marmoset brain by in situ hybridization. Reading is a cognitive function consisting of sensory perception, eye movements, language, and so on.

Dyslexic subjects can have abnormalities causing dysfunction in any of these processes (Ramus et al., 2003). Eye movements of dyslexic subjects during reading are different from those of age-matched control subjects. Specifically, dyslexic subjects show regressive saccades, unstable fixation, or long fixation durations (Bucci et al., 2012, Iles et al., 2000 and Jainta and Kapoula, 2011). We found that the dyslexia-related genes, ROBO1 and KIAA0319, and the SLI-related genes, CNTNAP2 and CMIP, are expressed in components of the visual pathway (including the SC, PBG,

and DLG) for oculomotor control ( Table 2). It has been reported that not only dyslexia-related genes, but also SLI-related genes, are associated with reading disabilities Buspirone HCl ( Newbury et al., 2011). Therefore, our results suggest the possibility that oculomotor abnormalities may underlie reading disabilities in subjects with genetic variants of dyslexia- or SLI-related genes. The motor system is important for motor control, vocal learning, language acquisition, and speech. Speech is a possible external interface for language. We show that human speech- and reading-related genes are expressed in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and specific layers of the primary motor cortex (Table 2). Intriguingly, songbirds also possess a song circuit comprised of specific nuclei (analogous to the thalamocortical–basal ganglia circuit) for song learning and singing, which is considered to resemble aspects of vocal learning in human (Bolhuis et al., 2010, Brainard and Doupe, 2002 and Jarvis et al., 2005). Furthermore in songbirds, FoxP2 is expressed in the dorsal thalamus and striatum, including the song nucleus Area X (analogous to the basal ganglia) ( Haesler et al., 2004, Panaitof et al., 2010 and Teramitsu et al.

M=v+fx The absolute momentum is a conserved quantity in inviscid

M=v+fx.The absolute momentum is a conserved quantity in inviscid flow with no variations in the y  -direction (DM/Dt=0DM/Dt=0) and is often used as the determining factor for inertial instability, 1 which itself can be considered a form of SI in the limit where N2=0N2=0. Assuming thermal wind balance, the slope of the absolute momentum surfaces is equation(11) ∂Mdx∂Mdz=∂v∂x+f∂v∂z=f∂v∂x+f2M2=ff+ζM2,where again ζ=∂v/∂xζ=∂v/∂x SB431542 chemical structure is the vertical component of the relative vorticity. If the initial PV is negative (unstable to SI), this implies that

equation(12) Ri=N2f2M4ff+ζM2.Then the isopycnal slope is steeper than that of the absolute momentum contours (which for brevity will henceforth be referred to as MM-surfaces), with equality when Ri=f/(f+ζ)Ri=f/f+ζ (neutral to SI). For an unstable

initial state one can also show that ff+ζ/M2>M2N2-fN1Ri-1+ζf, so that the MM-surface always lies within the SI-unstable arc. It is useful to begin by considering the energetics when parcels are exchanged along MM-surfaces. Haine and Marshall (1998) show that the change in potential energy ΔPΔP due to parcel exchange is given by equation(14) ΔP=ρ0N2Δy2ss-M2N2,where ΔyΔy is the horizontal distance of the parcel Selleckchem Dasatinib displacement and s   is the slope of the surface along which parcels are exchanged. Similarly, they also showed that the change in kinetic energy ΔKΔK by such an exchange is equation(15) ΔK=ρ0Δy2[f(f+ζ)-M2s]ΔK=ρ0Δy2ff+ζ-M2sand the total energy change, ΔE=ΔP+ΔKΔE=ΔP+ΔK, is equation(16) ΔE=ρ0Δy2ff+ζ-M2s+N2ss-M2N2.Factoring M2M2 out of the bracketed expression in (15), one has equation(17) ΔK=ρ0Δy2M2ff+ζM2-srevealing that there is no change in mean KE when parcels are exchanged along MM-surfaces. SI modes aligned with these surfaces thus grow purely via the extraction of background PE, forming a dichotomy with isopycnal-aligned modes, which grow purely via reduction of the geostrophic shear. One can extend this analysis to consider modes whose slope is between or around the isopycnals and MM-surfaces as well. Rolziracetam Substituting (9) into (16) reveals that ΔE=0ΔE=0

at the edges of the unstable arc; furthermore, Fig. 1 reveals that the extraction of energy smoothly transitions to zero as the edges are approached. Three “zones” thus exist: zone 1 contains all modes whose slope is steeper than the isopycnal, which grow by reducing the geostrophic shear but convert some of the extracted KE to mean PE in the background stratification; zone 2 lies between the isopycnal and the MM-surface, where both the background PE and KE are reduced; zone 3 lies between the MM-surface and the shallowest unstable slope, where the background PE is reduced but some KE is transferred back into the mean flow. A schematic of these zones appears in Fig. 2. The energetics of the unstable SI modes reveal that restratification is indeed possible in the absence of secondary Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities.

A longer duration of colitis is associated with an increased risk

A longer duration of colitis is associated with an increased risk of CRC. Early studies included in 2 meta-analyses indicated an exponentially increasing CRC risk after 10 years of UC,10 with cumulative CRC risk of 2% at 10 years, 8% at 20 years, and 18% after 30 years of Selleck PD0332991 disease. More

recent population-based studies have indicated, however, a much lower risk, with annual incidences as low as 0.06% to 0.20% and cumulative risk at 30 years as low as 2%.4 A Hungarian population-based study calculated a cumulative risk of 0.6% after 10 years, 5.4% after 20 years, and 7.5% after 30 years,8 and, in the largest single-center study of colitis surveillance colonoscopy, the cumulative incidence of CRC by colitis

duration showed a linear rather than exponential increase, from 2.5% at 20 years to 10.8% at 40 years of extensive UC.11 CRC before 8 years of colitis was thought uncommon, although a recent Swedish study calculated that 17% to 22% of patients developed cancer before 8 to 10 years for extensive colitis and 15 to 20 years for left-sided disease.12 IBD-CRC risk is thought to be promoted by inflammation. It is intuitive that more severe inflammation may confer a higher CRC risk, but early studies showed no clear association between colitic symptoms and CRC risk. There is poor correlation, however, between patients’ symptoms and the severity of inflammation, and it was only when studies focused on severity of inflammation at a tissue level that the strong association became apparent. Metformin cost A British case-control study found a significant correlation between both colonoscopic (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, P<.001) and histologic (OR 5.1, P<.001) inflammation and neoplasia risk. 9 A second article on the same patient cohort found that macroscopically normal mucosa seemed to return the CRC risk to that of the general population. 13 A subsequent American cohort study then found a significant correlation between histologic

inflammation and advanced neoplasia (hazard ratio 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4–6.3). 14 Postinflammatory polyps (PIPs), which arise during healing after severe inflammation, have been associated with an increased CRC risk Thalidomide in 2 case-control studies, with ORs of 2.14 (95% CI, 1.24–3.70)13 and 2.5 (95% CI, 1.4–4.6).15 It is thought that this probably reflects the increased risk relating to previous severe inflammation rather than the PIPs having malignant potential per se. As in noncolitic patients, a family history of CRC contributes to the risk of CRC in patients with colitis. Case-control and population-based studies show a 2- to 4-fold increase.16 An American case-control study found family history of CRC an independent risk factor for UC-CRC (OR 3.7; 95% CI, 1.0–13.2).15 A Swedish population-based study found that a family history of CRC was associated with a 2.5-fold increase in IBD-CRC (95% CI, 1.4–4.4).

In each test, the group of rats was divided in two and half of th

In each test, the group of rats was divided in two and half of the group received one of the combination of treatments listed above, Trametinib while the remaining animals received another combination of treatments into the LPBN. The sequence of the treatments was randomized for

each rat so that, at the end of testing, rats had received all four treatments. A recovery period of at least 2 days was allowed between tests. Another group of rats (n = 14) was used to test water and 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by treatment with FURO + CAP sc. On the day of the experiment, food, water and 0.3 M NaCl were removed and the cages were rinsed with water. Rats received sc injections of the diuretic FURO (10 mg/kg bw) plus CAP (5 mg/kg bw) as described previously (Callera et al., 2005, De Gobbi et al., 2001, Menani et al., 1996 and Thunhorst and Johnson, 1994). One hour after FURO + CAP treatment, burettes with water and 0.3 M NaCl solution were returned and measurements were taken at 30-min intervals for 180 min (sodium appetite test). Ten minutes before access to water and 0.3 M NaCl, rats received bilateral injections of muscimol (0.5 nmol/0.2 μl) or saline into the LPBN. Bilateral

injections of losartan (50 μg/0.2 μl) or saline into the LPBN were performed 10 min before the injections of muscimol or saline into the LPBN. In each experimental CH5424802 clinical trial session, the group of rats was divided in two and each half of the group received one of the four treatments in the LPBN: saline + saline, saline + muscimol, losartan + muscimol and losartan + saline. The sequence of the treatments was in a randomized order so that at the end of testing, rats had received all four treatments. A recovery period of at least Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) 3 days was allowed between experimental sessions. The order of treatments was randomized because repeated FURO + CAP injections enhances stimulated and spontaneous NaCl intake (Pereira et al., 2010). At the end of the experiments, the animals received bilateral injections of 2%

Evans blue dye solution (0.2 μl/injection site) into the LPBN. They were then deeply anesthetized with sodium thiopental (CRISTALIA, Itapira, SP, Brazil, 80 mg/kg of body weight) and perfused transcardially with saline followed by 10% formalin. The brains were removed, fixed in 10% formalin, frozen, cut in 60 μm sections, stained with Giemsa, and analyzed by light microscopy to confirm the injection sites in the LPBN. The results are reported as means ± S.E.M. Water and 0.3 M NaCl intake was analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures for both factors (treatments and times), followed by Newman–Keuls post hoc test. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. The software used for the analysis was SigmaStat for Windows, version 2.03 from SPSS Inc. The authors thank Arnaldo Cesar dos Santos for animal care.

Therefore, it is possible to recognize changes in geographical di

Therefore, it is possible to recognize changes in geographical distribution of seaweeds along the coast in the northwestern

Pacific Ocean due to global warming. Most of Sargassum species mature in early spring to early summer around Japan. When they become large around the mature season, some of them have been sometimes detached from the bottom by strong waves ( Yoshida, 1963). Sargassum species can float due to their vesicles after being detached. While some are stranded on the beach, the others are transported to offshore waters by surface currents due to positive buoyancy produced by many vesicles. Floating Sargassum species are called as Nagare-mo floating seaweeds or seaweed selleck compound rafts in Japan ( Yoshida, 1963). Floating seaweeds are commonly found in Japanese waters ( Yoshida, 1963) from spring to early summer, as in the Sargasso Sea. In this particular area, floating

seaweeds spend their entire floating-life stage in a vegetative reproductive state ( Parr, 1939). Floating seaweeds play key ecological roles in Dabrafenib mw offshore waters as well, as they play host to attaching or accompanying flora and fauna (Thiel and Gutow, 2005). Hence, floating seaweeds constitute moving ecosystems (e.g., Cho et al., 2001 and Abé et al., 2012). Thus, they serve as means of dispersal for littoral animals such as intertidal animals (e.g., Ingólfsson, 1995). With regard to fisheries, they are spawning habitats for flying fish (Ichimaru et al., 2006), Japanese halfbeak and Pacific saury (Cololabis saira Brevoort) ( Ikehara, 1986). They also serve as nursery habitats for larvae and juveniles of some commercially important pelagic fish species ( Ikehara, 2006), such as yellowtail

(Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck & Schlegel) ( Yamamoto et al., 2007) or jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus Temminck & Schlegel) ( Senta, 1965), which spawn in the East China Sea ( Fig. 1). Recent studies suggested that the origin of floating seaweeds in East China Sea consisting of only one species, Sargassum horneri C. Agardh, is Chinese coast, especially off Zhejiang Province ( Komatsu et al., 2005, Komatsu et al., 2013 and Mizuno et al., 2013) because this species is not distributed south of Kyushu Island and Ryukyu Archipelago ( Komatsu et al., Progesterone 2007, Komatsu et al., 2009 and Filippi et al., 2010). Consequently, investigating change in spatial distribution and abundance of floating seaweeds consisting of S. horneri and spawning zones of yellowtail defined as surface water temperatures in this specific area is of primary interest for fishery purposes. S. horneri is one of important seaweed aquaculture species as food in Japan and Korea (Ajisaka, personal communication). Spatial distribution of this species is very wide from Hokkaido Island in a boreal zone to north Kyushu Island facing East China Sea and central Honshu Island facing the Pacific Ocean in a temperate zone.

The states of the variable are described as intervals, which are

The states of the variable are described as intervals, which are quite large but can be easily modified if necessary. There is one specific amount for the oil spills, of 30 000 ton, which is the largest oil spill considered by the authorities in Finland, and reflects the preparedness level for Finland, see SYKE (2011). It is an independent variable, which exists in three states: spring (Mar.–May), summer (Jun.–Aug.) and autumn (Sept.–Nov.). Winter

is excluded for several reasons, first as oil-spill combating during ice season is different than during the other seasons. Second, some of the oil-combating vessels are not capable of operating in ice conditions. Third, there is no reliable Epacadostat concentration prediction model for the movement of oil in ice conditions in the GOF, (Helle et al., 2011). The prior distribution for the variable Season is presented in Table 2 and informs about the probability that an accident resulting in an oil spill would occur on the Gulf of Finland specifically during this season of the year. The distribution was gained from the compiled accident statistics of HELCOM between the years 1989 and 2005 – ( HELCOM, 2013). It is one of the most important factors affecting the cost of the clean-up operation. It affects the cost in a multitude of ways, starting from the GSK J4 mouse way that the spilled

oil spreads in water, which affects the time it takes for the spill to reach the shoreline. In addition, heavier oil has the tendency to sink; this in turn affects the possible recovery eltoprazine percentage of the oil-combating vessels.

The oil type also affects the efficiencies of the combating vessels, due to the fact that some oils are less likely to adhere to the brushes used by the combating vessels. In the presented model, this variable exists in three states: light, medium and heavy. The probabilities for each state are given in Table 3. They are based on an estimation made by experts from the Finnish Environment Institute considering the oil tankers traffic in the Gulf of Finland, see for example Juntunen et al. (2005). For the Gulf of Finland, it is estimated that an oil slick would arrive ashore quite quickly. In the case of an accident taking place in the middle of the sea, it could take between one to nine days for the oil to reach the shoreline, see for example Andrejev et al., 2011, Viikmäe and Soomere, 2013 and Soomere et al., 2011. Therefore the variable is set to consist altogether of ten intervals, ranging from zero to ten days. We assume, the prior distribution for this variable follows the Gaussian distribution, with μ = 5 days and σ = 2 days. However, if the spill takes place in Finnish waters of the Gulf of Finland, it is estimated that it would take a maximum of three days before the oil reaches the shore, ( Hietala and Lampela, 2007).

The authors interpreted this pattern as evidence that pre-selecti

The authors interpreted this pattern as evidence that pre-selective perceptual processing of the target was facilitated in repeat trials, in line with the dimension weighting account of Müller and colleagues (e.g. Found and Müller, 1996). Support for a perceptual locus in priming has also come from Olivers and Hickey (2010), which have shown that the lateral P1 component of the visual ERP–reflecting early perceptual processing contralateral to a color-singleton target–is speeded in color-repeat trials.

In addition to adding to this developing literature, the current study confirms the idea that attentional capture can be driven by feature priming. Existing behavioral work has suggested that the costs associated with a salient distractor stem primarily from swap trials, where the features that characterize a salient distractor have recently mTOR inhibitor characterized the target, and that this is caused by increased likelihood of capture in these trials (e.g. Pinto et al., 2005 and Becker, 2007, but see Lamy and Yashar, 2008). Consistent with this, when the target was presented on the vertical meridian of the search display in the current study, and thus could not have a lateralized impact on the ERP, the distractor elicited a clear N2pc in swap trials that was absent in no-swap trials GSK2118436 cost (cf. Fig. 4a and b). These

results suggest that target processing causes a reinforcement of target features and devaluation of distractor features, resulting in a bias of attention towards objects with features that have characterized the target in earlier experience. When these features came to characterize a distractor in swap trials, this drives the misallocation of attention to the distractor location (see also Hickey et al., 2010b). Support for this notion is further provided by results

from the lateral-distractor, contralateral-target condition (cf Fig. 1 and Fig. 4). A clear target-elicited N2pc is apparent in the no-swap condition (Fig. 1b) but is absent in the swap condition (Fig. 4c), where a late distractor-elicited N2pc becomes evident. The reduction or Idelalisib in vivo elimination of the target-elicited effect is consistent with the idea that the deployment of attention to the target is disrupted by the swap in stimuli color, and the distractor-elicited N2pc suggests the deployment of attention to the distractor location. This distractor-elicited N2pc is, however, substantially delayed relative to both the target-elicited N2pc (Fig. 1b) and the distractor-elicited N2pc observed in the vertical-target, lateral-distractor condition (Fig. 4b). This is an unexpected and frankly puzzling result. One possibility is that the early portion of this component has been lost in the signal averaging process. According to this idea, attention may have often been captured to the distractor in this swap condition, but in a subset of trials it was deployed directly to the target.