Organic antibacterial agent has many disadvantages, including the toxicity hazard to the human body and instability in high temperature and pressure . By comparison, inorganic antibacterial agent has the properties of heat resistance, long life, and chemical stability . Nowadays, metallic simple substances and their compounds are used widely in
antimicrobial application research, such as Ag selleck chemicals [12–16], Fe2O3, TiO2, CuO [19, 20], MgO , Mg (OH)2, and ZnO [23, 24]. Among metal oxide antibacterial agents, ZnO has aroused concern due to its good antibacterial activities on a broad spectrum of bacteria [24–26]. The antibacterial properties of ZnO have been studied broadly with Selleckchem CUDC-907 pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Pseudomonas, etc. [26, 27]. Zinc oxide is an interesting material due to its extensive applications in various areas, such as antibacterial, optical, piezoelectric, magnetic, and gas sensing properties [24, 26–31]. Therefore, many of the synthetic approaches such as sol-gel method , co-precipitation , hydrothermal method , microwave synthesis [23, 26], and thermal evaporation method  have been used for the preparation of ZnO powders. Hydrothermal method is an important technology in synthetic material. Using this method, the crystal grain can develop completely and the particle size is uniform. In this work, in order to research the influence of the microstructure and crystal on the Angiogenesis inhibitor antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO powders, the powders were synthesized by alcohothermal method from different zinc salts, and the antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus were evaluated. Moreover, the antibacterial mechanism Pregnenolone of titanium-doped
ZnO powders was deduced. Materials and methods Materials The reagents (e.g., two hydrated zinc acetate, zinc vitriol, zinc nitrate, zinc chloride, lithium hydroxide monohydrate, absolute ethyl alcohol, tetrabutyl titanate, glutaraldehyde, disodium hydrogen phosphate 12-hydrate, monopotassium phosphate) used in this study were analytically pure chemicals. Biological reagents (e.g., nutrient broth, nutrient agar medium) were used as received. De-ionized water and aquae sterilisata with conductivity lower than 0.5 μS/cm were used to prepare all the solutions. E. coli (ATCC44104) and S. aureus (CMCC26001) bacterial strains were obtained from Beijing Assay Institute of Biological Products. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH = 7.4) was prepared with disodium hydrogen phosphate 12-hydrate and monopotassium phosphate. Synthesis of titanium-doped ZnO powders Under magnetic stirring condition, 0.1 mol/L zinc salts and 0.14 mol/L lithium hydroxide alcoholic solution were prepared. Meanwhile, 0.01 mol/L tetrabutyl titanate alcoholic solution was prepared.