02 kg. Heart rate was determined by
POLAR® (Finland) heart rate monitor. Blood pressure was assessed in the supine position after resting for 5-min using a mercurial sphygmomanometer via standard procedures. Subjects then had body composition determined using hydrodensitometry BYL719 using standard procedures. Subjects reported to the Human Performance Lab in swimsuits and had their body weight determined out of water by an electronic scale. Body composition was analyzed using an EXERTECH (La Cresent, MN) body density measuring system that utilizes a weighing platform with electronic (load cell) weighing system connected to a PC. Calibration is conducted daily by establishing linear interpolation from 2 known weights. Data points were recorded with data acquisition software from the force transducer. Residual volume was estimated using standard procedures . Subjects were submerged in warm water and asked to exhale a maximal amount of air while a signal from the force transducer produced a readable analog wave. The most stable waveform was selected, and the mean value was recorded. Subjects performed this procedure until at least 2 trials were within a 0.10% difference Pevonedistat or a total
of 7 trials were completed. Next, body density was calculated after weight was recorded in and out of water, and the Siri equation was used to calculate percentage of body fat . Fat-free mass (FFM) was also calculated from the percentage of body fat . Subjects then donated approximately 20 ml of fasting blood using buy RG-7388 venipuncture techniques of an antecubital Cell press vein in the forearm according to standard procedures. Blood samples were shipped to Quest Diagnostics (Dallas, TX) to run clinical chemistry profile, hepatic function, and whole blood cell counts. Blood samples were also centrifuged and aliquoted to microcentrifuge tubes and stored at -40°C for future analyses. Serum samples were then assayed in duplicate for the hormones free testosterone, Insulin, leptin, cortisol
(Diagnostics Systems Laboratories, Webster, TX), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (Alpco Diagnostics, Windham, NH), using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and enzyme-immunoabsorbent assays (EIA) using a Wallac Victor-1420 microplate reader (Perkin-Elmer Life Sciences, Boston, MA), and the assays were performed at a wavelength or either 450 or 405 nm, respectively in the Exercise and Biochemical Nutrition Lab at Baylor University. Subjects then performed 1 repetition maximum lifts (1-RM) on the isotonic bench press and leg press to assess strength and then muscular endurance. All strength/exercise tests were supervised by lab assistants experienced in conducting strength/anaerobic exercise tests using standard procedures. Subjects warmed-up (2 sets of 8 – 10 repetitions at approximately 50% of anticipated maximum) on the bench press.