“The bacterial Sm-like protein, Hfq, is a key factor for the stability and function of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in Escherichia coli. Homologues of this protein have been predicted in many distantly related organisms yet their functional selleck inhibitor conservation as sRNA-binding proteins has not entirely been clear. TO address this, we expressed in Salmonella the Hfq proteins of two eubacteria (Neisseria
meningitides, Aquifex aeolicus) and an archaeon (Methanocaldococcus jannaschii), and analyzed the associated RNA by deep sequencing. This in vivo approach identified endogenous Salmonella sRNAs as a major target of the foreign Hfq proteins. New Salmonella sRNA species were also identified, and some of these accumulated specifically in the presence of a foreign Hfq protein. In addition, we observed specific RNA processing defects, e.g., suppression of precursor processing of SraH sRNA by Methanocaldococcus Hfq, or aberrant accumulation of extracytoplasmic target mRNAs of the Salmonella GcvB, MicA or RybB sRNAs. Taken together, our study provides evidence of a conserved inherent sRNA-binding property of Hfiq, which may facilitate Selleckchem Akt inhibitor the lateral transmission of regulatory sRNAs among distantly related species. It also suggests that the expression of heterologous
RNA-binding proteins combined with deep sequencing analysis of RNA ligands can be used as a molecular tool to dissect individual steps of RNA metabolism in vivo.”
“We present a numerical study of the effects of the energy barrier between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the acceptor layer and the cathode, the thicknesses of the donor layer and acceptor layer on the distributions of carrier density, the electric fields and the electric potentials of organic planar heterojunction solar cells. Lonafarnib clinical trial We obtained the quantitative dependencies of the distribution of carrier density,
electric fields and the electric potentials on these quantities. The results provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental study of open-circuit organic planar heterojunction solar cells.”
“Public demand to conserve biodiversity has resulted in increased monitoring efforts for a vast number of species. Faced with reporting on the large amounts of information generated by biodiversity monitoring, there is a desire to have state variables that simplify this complexity. Intactness indices describe the deviation of the state of biodiversity from a specified reference condition. An effective intactness index should not only statistically describe changes in biodiversity when change occurs but also resonate with people in a way that they have a clear picture of the type of change that has occurred. We used an online survey to evaluate whether public perception of cumulative impacts as viewed through images of disturbed boreal landscapes was correlated with actual indices of avian biodiversity intactness.