Reactive oxygen species are key players in UVR-mediated photodamage EPZ5676 molecular weight and induce the DNA-base-oxidized, intermediate 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Herein, we report the protective action of melatonin against UVR-induced 8-OHdG formation and depletion of antioxidative enzymes using ex vivo human full-thickness skin exposed to
UVR in a dose (0, 100, 300mJ/cm2)- and time-dependent manner (0, 24, 48hr post-UVR). Dynamics of depletion of antioxidative enzymes including catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), or 8-OHdG formation were studied by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence/immunohistochemical staining. UVR-treated skin revealed significant and immediate (0hr 300mJ/cm2) reduction of gene expression, and this effect intensified within 24hr post-UVR. Simultaneous increase in 8-OHdG-positive keratinocytes occurred already after 0hr post-UVR reaching 71% and 99% up-regulation at 100 Ro-3306 cost and 300mJ/cm2, respectively (P<0.001). Preincubation with melatonin (103m) led to 32% and 29% significant reductions in 8-OHdG-positive cells and the prevention of antioxidative enzyme gene and protein suppression. Thus, melatonin was shown to play a crucial role as a potent antioxidant and DNA protectant against UVR-induced oxidative damage in human skin.”
“In this study, we show that top-down control
mechanisms engaged during visual imagery of simple shapes (letters X and O) can selectively activate position-invariant perceptual codes in visual areas specialised for shape processing, including lateral occipital complex (LOC). First, we used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to identify visual cortical areas that code for shape within a position-invariant reference frame. Next, we examined the similarity between these high-level visual codes and patterns elicited while participants imagined the corresponding stimulus at central fixation. Our results demonstrate that imagery engages object-centred codes in higher-level visual areas. P005091 mouse More generally, our results also demonstrate that top-down control
mechanisms are able to generate highly specific patterns of visual activity in the absence of corresponding sensory input. We argue that a general model of top-down control must account for dynamic modulation of functional connectivity between high-level control centres and overlapping neural codes in visual cortex. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“ObjectiveThis study examined the relationships between parental posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), child PTSS, and parent-child concordance for child PTSS.\n\nMethodParticipants were children with cancer (n=199), and healthy children (n=108) and their parents. Children self-reported on PTSS and parents completed measures of child and parent PTSS.\n\nResultsIn the cancer group, child and parent reports of child PTSS were significantly correlated with no mean differences between reporters.