However, controversial results have been reported regarding the r

However, controversial results have been reported regarding the regulation of NMDAR expression, and direct evidence of how NMDAR antagonists act on specific subpopulations of prefrontal interneurons is learn more missing. We investigated the effects of the NMDAR antagonist

dizocilpine (MK-801) on the expression of NMDAR subtypes in the identified interneurons; in young adult rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) by using laser microdissection and real-time polymerase chain reaction, combined with Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. We found that MK-801 induced distinct changes of NMDAR subunits in the parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-ir) interneurons vs. pyramidal neurons in the PFC circuitry. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of all NMDAR subtypes, including NR1 and NR2A to Torin 1 2D, exhibited inverted-U dose-dependent changes in response to MK-801 treatment

in the PFC. In contrast, subunit mRNAs of NMDARs in PV-ir interneurons were significantly down-regulated at low doses, unaltered at medium doses, and significantly decreased again at high doses, suggesting a biphasic dose response to MK-801. The differential effects of MK-801 in mRNA expression of NMDAR subunits were consistent with the protein expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits revealed with Western blotting and double immunofluorescent staining. These results suggest that PV-containing interneurons in the PFC exhibit a distinct responsiveness to NMDAR antagonism and that NMDA antagonist can differentially and dose-dependently regulate the functions of pyramidal neurons

and GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortical circuitry.”
“Background Thyrotropin-releasing hormones (TRH) added to prenatal corticosteroids has been suggested as a way to further reduce breathing problems and neonatal lung disease in infants born preterm.\n\nObjectives To assess the effects of giving prenatal TRH in addition to corticosteroids to women at risk of preterm birth for the prevention of neonatal respiratory disease.\n\nSearch methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We also contacted trial authors.\n\nSelection criteria Randomised controlled trials in women at selleck chemicals llc sufficient risk of preterm birth to warrant the use of prenatal corticosteroids to promote lung maturity. TRH and corticosteroids were compared with corticosteroids, with or without placebo.\n\nData collection and analysis All assessments of trial eligibility, risk of bias and data extractions were independently carried out by at least two review authors.\n\nMain results Over 4600 women were recruited into the 15 trials included in the review, however two trials did not contribute any outcome data to the review. The trials had a moderate risk of bias.

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