elegans strains and their survival. Number (cfu) of E. coli OP50 (Panel A) or S. typhimurium SL1344 (Panel C) within
the intestine of N2 (wild type), daf-2 and phm-2 single mutant, and daf-2;phm-2 double mutant C. elegans strains. Panel B) Survival of same strains when grown on lawns of E. coli OP50 or S. typhimurium SL1344 (Panel D). In lifespan analysis, the TD50 for phm-2 worms exposed to E. coli OP50 (8.7 ± 0.70 days) (Figure 7B), was significantly (p <0.001) shorter than for N2 worms (12.9 ± 0.51), and findings were parallel for Salmonella (Figure 7D), consistent with prior studies . Thus, the grinder-deficient worms delivered more viable bacteria to the C. elegans intestine, and lifespan was reduced compared to N2 for worms grown on either E. coli or Salmonella lawns. The long-lived C. elegans daf-2 mutants are resistant to bacterial pathogens  and as shown above, have significantly Tipifarnib in vivo lower levels of bacterial colonization (Figure 2, Table 1); these worms have a significantly delayed decline in pharyngeal pumping . Thus, daf-2 mutants could be more resistant
to bacterial colonization simply because their pharynx remains functional for an extended period of time, or alternatively, because their intestinal milieu is more antimicrobial. To address this question, we constructed daf-2;phm-2 double mutants. We found that young daf-2;phm-2 double mutants have significantly higher bacterial loads than the wild type and daf-2 single mutants, resembling the 17-AAG concentration phm-2 single mutants (Figure 7A); thus, early on, the phm-2 phenotype dominates. However, as the daf-2;phm-2 mutants age, they become increasingly capable of controlling bacterial colonization, with accumulation levels diminishing to the daf-2 level. Furthermore, their overall lifespan is very similar to the lifespan of daf-2 single mutants when exposed to E. coli (Figure 7B). Similar trends, although with a more intermediate phenotype, were NU7441 observed when the worms were exposed to Salmonella lawns (Figures 7C and 7D),
indicating that the daf-2 phenotypes ultimately become dominant. Thus, in the presence of enhanced Etoposide datasheet intestinal immunity, the number of delivered bacterial cells has no long-term effect on bacterial load or on longevity. To extend these observations, the profile of bacterial accumulation in the intestinal lumen after feeding E. coli OP50 expressing GFP was studied. As before, E. coli accumulated in the intestine of N2 worms as they aged, leading to a marked distension of the intestinal lumen by day 9 (Figure 8). The daf-2 and phm-2 single mutants showed contrasting phenotypes, with no bacterial accumulation detected by day 9 and noticeable bacterial packing from day 1, respectively. The kinetics of bacterial accumulation observed in the daf-2;phm-2 double mutants correlated with the cfu quantitation (Figure 7C), indicating increasing control of bacterial load over time. Figure 8 C.