188 Another study found a failure of medial prefrontal cortical/a

188 Another study found a failure of medial prefrontal cortical/anterior cingulate activation, and decreased visual association and parietal cortex function, in women with abuse and PTSD relative to women with abuse without PTSD, during performance of the emotional Stroop task (ie, naming the color of a word such as “rape”).189 We recently found increased amygdala activation with classical fear conditioning Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (pairing a shock and a visual stimulus), and decreased medial prefrontal

cortex function with extinction, in abuse-related PTSD.190 The findings described above point to a network of related regions mediating symptoms of PTSD, including medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, hippocampus, amygdala, posterior cingulate, parietal, visual association, and dorsolateral Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical prefrontal cortex.191 Fewer brain imaging studies have been performed in children with PTSD. Several studies have shown alterations in electroencephalogram (EEG) measures of brain activity in children with a variety of traumas who were not selected for diagnosis

compared with healthy children. About half of the children in these studies had a psychiatric Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical diagnosis. Abnormalities were located in the anterior frontal cortex and temporal lobe and were localized to the left hemisphere.192,193 Two studies have found reductions in brain volume in children with trauma and PTSD symptoms.154,155 One group did not find reductions in hippocampal volume, either at baseline or over a longitudinal period,154,156 while another group found an 8.5% reduction in hippocampal volume that was not significant after controlling for smaller brain volumes in the PTSD group.155 One study used single-voxel Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (proton MRS) to measure relative concentration of NAA and creatinine (a marker of BAY 117082 neuronal viability) in the anterior cingulate of 11 children with maltreatment-related PTSD

and 11 controls. The authors found a reduction in the ratio Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of NAA to creatinine in PTSD relative to controls.159 Studies have also found smaller size of the corpus callosum in children with abuse and PTSD relative to controls.154 as well as larger volume of the superior temporal gyrus.194 In a study of abused children in whom diagnosis was not specified, there was an increase in Resveratrol T2 relaxation time in the cerebellar vermis, suggesting dysfunction in this brain region.195 The reason for differences in findings between adults and children are not clear; however, factors such as chronicity of illness or interaction between trauma and development may explain findings to date. In summary, dysfunction of a circuit involving the medial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and possibly hippocampus and amygdala during exposure to traumatic reminders may underlie symptoms of PTSD.

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